Health is a state of complete Physical, Mental, and Social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. WHO, 1947 The Metaphysical Context of the Universe The Secular Dimensions of Health PhysicalMental Social
Two Major Aspects of Health l Feeling Well l Ability to Function
Determinants of Health l the complex inter-relationships of s genetics s social environment s physical environment s behavior s health/illness services l that determine the level of health and sense of well-being in an individual
Genetics l Body Size l Special Abilities l Disease Resistance l Disease Susceptibility l Genetic Diseases l General Robustness
Physical Environment l Macro-environment s Food and Water s Air Pollution l Micro-environment s Home s Workplace
Social Environment l Religion l Race/Gender l Socioeconomic Status l Education l Occupation l Family Composition
Socioeconomic Status, Income and Health l Socioeconomic Status s As GDP increases, the health of a nation increases s In times of economic hardship, the incidence of disease increases
Health Care l Quality l Availability l “Health has improved NOT because of steps taken while we are ill, but because we are ill less often.” Thomas McKeown, 1978
Health Promotion l An intervention that seeks to eliminate or reduce exposures to harmful factors by modifying human behaviors; or any combination of health education and related organizational, political and economic interventions designed to facilitate behavioral and environmental adaptations that will improve or protect health l Concerned specifically with sociobehavorial processes.
Targets of Health Promotion l Individuals at risk of a health problem l Those who influence individuals at risk l Those who set policy s Foster the adoption of healthful changes in the environment s Improve health services s Encourage healthful personal behavior change
Health Promotion Objectives l Individual s Knowledge s Attitudes s Behaviors s Physiology l Organization s Policies s Practices s Programs s Facilities s Resources l Community s Policies s Practices s Programs s Facilities s Resources l Government s Policies/Programs s Facilities/Resources s Legislation/Ordinances s Regulation/Enforcement
Examples of HEALTHY PEOPLE 2000 Priority Areas l Health Promotion s Physical Activity and Nutrition s Tobacco s Alcohol Consumption l Preventive Services s Heart Disease and Stroke s Cancer s Health Screenings
Healthy People 2010 l 2 Broad Goals s Increase quality and years of healthy life s Eliminate health disparities l 4 Primary Objectives s Promote healthy behaviors s Promote healthy and safe communities s Improve systems for personal and public health s Prevent and reduce diseases and disorders
Disease Prevention l any intervention that seeks to reduce or eliminate diagnosable conditions; it may be applied at the individual level, as in immunization, or the community level, as in chlorination of the water supply
Primary Prevention l Measures taken to prevent the disease from occurring such as: s healthy lifestyle habits s Immunizations
Secondary Prevention l Measures undertaken to facilitate early detection s Screenings s Diagnostic tests
Tertiary Prevention l Measures to minimize complications or exacerbation of injury or disease. s Rehabilitation Therapy s Patient counseling
Discussion Time l Identify all three levels of prevention as they apply to a health problem or threat to health such as injury or vaccine preventable disease l Be sure to include consideration of all of the determinants of health!
Summary l There are various definitions of “health” l A number of factors determine our health, including genetics, physical factors, social factors, healthcare and lifestyle factors. l Health promotion and disease prevention are related to identifying strategies to prevent disease and injury.