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Presentation on theme: "HEALTH & ILLNESS."— Presentation transcript:


2 Definitions of Health States
Health: a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being, not merely the absence of disease (WHO) Illness: the unique response of a person to a disease Wellness: an active state, oriented toward maximizing the potential of the individual

3 The Human Dimensions of Health
Physical dimension — genetic inheritance, age, developmental level, race, and gender Emotional dimension — how the mind affects body function and responds to body conditions Intellectual dimension — cognitive abilities, educational background, and past experiences Environmental dimension — housing, sanitation, climate, pollution of air, food, and water

4 Cont. Human Dimensions of Health
Sociocultural dimension — economic level, lifestyle, family, and culture Spiritual dimension — spiritual beliefs and values

5 Models of Health and Illness
The agent-host-environment model: The agent, host, and environment interact in ways that create risk factors. The health-illness continuum: Views health as a constantly changing state with high-level wellness and death on opposite sides of a continuum The high-level wellness model The health belief model The health promotion model

6 Factors Affecting Health Status, Beliefs, and Practices
Risk factors for illness Factors in the human dimensions that influence health-illness status Beliefs and practice Basic human needs Self-concept

7 Basic Human Needs (Maslow)

8 Factors That Influence a Person’s Self Concept
Past experiences Interpersonal interactions Physical and cultural influences Education

9 Types of Illness Acute illness Chronic illness
Generally has a rapid onset of symptoms and lasts only a relatively short time Examples: appendicitis, pneumonia, diarrhea, common cold Chronic illness A broad term that encompasses many different physical and mental alterations Examples: diabetes mellitus, lung disease, arthritis, lupus

10 Stages of Illness Behavior
Experiencing symptoms Assuming the sick role Assuming a dependent role Achieving recovery and rehabilitation

11 Levels of Preventive Care
Primary prevention — e.g., diet, exercise, immunizations Secondary prevention — e.g., screenings, mammograms, family counseling Tertiary prevention — e.g., medications, surgical treatment, rehabilitation

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