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AS UK Government and Politics Topic 4 Political parties.

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1 AS UK Government and Politics Topic 4 Political parties

2 Political party functions Aggregating policy, developing programmes Developing policy options Recruiting members, activists, leaders Opportunities for participation in politics Training potential leaders Educating the public about political issues Helping to run elections Reinforcing democratic consent

3 Topic 4 Political parties Two-party domination in UK politics Election Conservative seats Labour seats Liberal (or Lib Dem seats) % of seats won by largest two parties 19793392691195.8 19833972092393.3 19873762292293.0 19923362712093.2 19971654184688.4 20014131665287.8 20051983566285.6 20103072585786.9

4 Topic 4 Political parties Electoral and party systems in Europe CountryElectoral systemForm of government BelgiumPR listMulti party coalition (2007) AustriaPR listTwo party coalition (2008) LuxembourgPR listTwo party coalition (2009) FinlandPR listTwo party coalition (2007) NetherlandsPR listThree party coalition (2006) SpainPR listSingle party minority (2008) SwedenPR listMulti party coalition (2006) DenmarkPR listMulti party coalition (2007) continued...

5 Topic 4 Political parties CountryElectoral systemForm of government GermanyAMSTwo party coalition (2009) ItalyAMSTwo party coalition (2008) IrelandSTVThree party coalition (2007) FranceSecond ballotFour party coalition (2007) UKFPTPCoalition government (2010) Compiled by Anna Rose O’Dwyer, St Paul’s School

6 Topic 4 Political parties Traditional Conservative principles Stress on law and order Defence of private property Pessimistic view of human nature Belief in natural inequality and natural hierarchy Organic society Evolutionary change rather than artificial reform Empiricism Support for tradition Patriotism

7 Topic 4 Political parties New Right principles Neo-liberalism Support for free markets Reduced government interventions (deregulation) Reduced levels of taxation Anti ‘dependency culture’ Opposition to powerful trade unions Strong belief in individualism Neo-conservatism Authoritarian state Opposition to progressive liberal values Economic and political patriotism Stress on traditional or religious values

8 Topic 4 Political parties Conservatism under Cameron Concern for the socially excluded Concern for the environment Euroscepticism Acceptance of constitutional reform Support for the welfare state Concern for individual rights and freedoms Stress on financial responsibility ‘Big Society’

9 Topic 4 Political parties Principles of Democratic Socialism Collectivism Common ownership State planning Redistribution of income Welfare state Equal rights Workers’ rights and trade unionism Equality of opportunity

10 Topic 4 Political parties Social democracy, New Labour and the Third Way Support for free market capitalism Attack on poverty Weak trade unions but legal safeguards for workers Support for the welfare state Less state control of the economy Tough on crime, tough on the causes of crime Pro European, but cautious about the euro Support for active foreign policy and action on world poverty Constitutional reform

11 Topic 4 Political parties Principles of Liberalism Stress on individual liberty Tolerance Equal rights and protection of rights Strong constitutional controls on government Equality of opportunity Social justice Welfare state Removal of artificial privilege Anti discrimination Stress on democratic values

12 Topic 4 Political parties Liberal Democrat party policies Electoral and second chamber reform Increased power for devolved and local government Codified constitution Strengthening individual rights Redistribution of income through taxation policy Environmental protection Ethical and cautious foreign policy Strong support for the welfare state Tolerant attitude to law and order

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