Liberalism The belief in the importance of liberty and equal rights. Constitutionalism Free and fair elections Liberal democracy Human rights Capitalism Free trade Religious freedom People, regardless of party affiliation, can identify as liberal in this sense. Several variants of liberalism, i. e. classical liberalism and social liberalism
Conservatism A political and social philosophy that promotes the maintenance of traditional institutions and supports. Minimal and gradual change to society, return to the way things were. Fiscal conservatism Supply-side economics economic growth can be created by reducing regulations for people to produce (supply) goods and services. Social conservatism Libertarian conservatism Religious conservatism Bio-conservatism Support a strong military
AUTHORITARIAN: FASCISM LIBERTARIAN: ANARCHISM FAR LEFT: COMMUNISM FAR RIGHT: NEO-LIBERALISM, NEO- CONSERVATISM Definitions: The Extremes of the Spectrum
Authoritarianism Opposed to individualism and democracy Political authority is in the hands of a small group of political elite Typically unelected by the people Have exclusive, unaccountable power Social and economic institutions exist that are not controlled by the government People must submit to the authority of the state.
Authoritarianism Fascism is an example of an authoritarian government. a nation requires strong leadership singular collective identity will and ability to commit violence and wage war in order to keep the nation strong.
Libertarianism Political philosophy that holds individual liberty as the basic moral principle of society. Advocate minimal government activity. Goal of maximizing personal liberty and political freedom. There are several strains of libertarianism.
Libertarianism Anarchism Political philosophy that considers the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful. Oppose the idea that power and domination are necessary for society. Advocate cooperative, anti-hierarchical forms of social, political, and economic organization May live collectively Consensus vs. majority rules There are several strains of anarchism
Far-Left Communism or Marxism A social, political, and economic movement that seeks the following goals: A classless society A stateless society Literally no government or countries Common ownership of the means of production Anti-capitalist Several different kinds of communists.
Far Left Communism in history and today- reality vs. theory Communist states One-party system Claim allegiance to Leninism and/or Marxism Usually refer to themselves socialist states or Workers’ states Planned economies- limited free markets Large amount of state sponsored social organizations Widely regarded as de facto dictatorships State owns means of production History: USSR, Eastern Bloc countries Today: China, North Korea, Cuba, Vietnam
Far Right Neo-liberalism Market driven approach to economic and social policy. Relatively open markets Want private control of the economy rather than public (government) control Governments should not have deficits No more public spending on pro-poor services like education, health care, and welfare programs. Reform taxes, lower tax rates Deregulation of business Environment, consumer protections, oversight of financial institutions
Far Right Neo-conservatism A perspective on how U.S. should conduct foreign policy. Democracy promotion Assisting movements for democracy Economic sanctions Military actions Favor free-market policies Support national government in fighting poverty and promoting the public good, but are influenced by libertarian beliefs.
THE LEFT: SOCIALISM, DEMOCRATS THE RIGHT: LIBERTARIANISM, REPUBLICANS Definitions: Towards the Middle of the Spectrum
The Left Side of the Spectrum CENTER Authoritarian/Socialism Democratic Communism Party
Left Side of the Spectrum Socialism An economic system Means of production are state owned or commonly owned Controlled cooperatively Meant to empower the worker A political philosophy advocating the economic changes in the state.
The Left Side of the Spectrum Democratic Party Size of national government Support a strong federal government and look to it to solve a variety of problems. Taxes Favor tax cuts for the poor, but are more willing to raise taxes on the rich to support programs they see as beneficial to society. Regulation of business Support government regulation of business to protect consumers, workers, or the environment. Social issues More likely to support abortion rights, gun control laws, and oppose school prayer Minimum wage Favor regular increases to the minimum wage to support poor families. A major party in the U. S. two-party system.
The Right Side of the Spectrum Republican Libertarian Anarchism Party Party CENTER
Right Side of the Spectrum Libertarian Party Minimally regulated markets Laissez-faire Minimally regulated borders Non-interventionism in foreign policy Freedom of trade Freedom of movement Constitutional limitations on government Elimination of most state functions
Right Side of the Spectrum Republican Party Size of national government Favor limiting the size of the national government and giving more power to the states to solve problems at a local level. Taxes Favor broad-based tax cuts to encourage economic growth and allow people to keep what they earn Regulation of business Oppose excessive regulation of business by the government Social issues Favor prayer in schools, oppose abortion and gun control laws Minimum wage Oppose minimum wage laws as unnecessary economic regulation A major party in the U. S. two-party system
The Middle of the spectrum Centrists The middle between left-wing politics and right-wing politics. Tend to focus around policies, such as: Progressive taxation (taxation based on income, tax rate increases based on the amount of money you have) Civil liberties Human rights Economic liberalism Social liberalism
Independents Chose not to align with a political party Independents=Centrists? Not necessarily Independents may have a viewpoint more extreme than a major party. May also have a viewpoint based on issues that no other major party addresses. Independent politicians Don’t want to have to deal with party policies May form a political party to run for public office
TEST TAKING SKILLS (RIGHT IN TIME FOR YOUR PRACTICE ACT!) MORE ON THE ELECTION PROCESS HOMEWORK: GO TO A POLITICAL PARTY WEBSITE. THINK OUTSIDE THE BOX. FIND THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION: WHERE THE PARTY STANDS ON MAJOR ISSUES PROMINENT PEOPLE/POLITICIANS IN THE PARTY HOW DOES THE WEBSITE PORTRAY OTHER POLITICAL PARTIES? Next class…