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Contraceptives What you NEED to KNOW…

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1 Contraceptives What you NEED to KNOW…
About 750,000 teens (15-19) become pregnant is US each year 6 in 10 US pregnancies are unplanned Most teens do not plan on having sex the first time and forget to use birth control method Couples who use no birth control have an 85% chance of a pregnancy within the first year Remember: The total risks of birth control are much less than the total risks of pregnancy! All Information from Nathan Matza,Huntington Beach Community Clinic, 2002

2 Abstinence Only 100% method of Birth Control
Communication between partners is important Reasons to abstain: Personal beliefs Medical reasons Moral or religious values Future Plans Not ready for an intimate relationship

3 Oral, Patch, & Ring Contraceptives
No Protections against STDs To be effective: Take same time everyday Use condoms for fisrt month Use condoms when on antibiotics Use condoms for 1 week if you miss a pill Side-Effects Breast Tenderness Nausua Increase in Headaches Moodiness Weight change Spotting Hormones work to stop ovulation, thin uterine lining, and thicken cervical mucus Safe and over 99% effective when taken properly Pap Smear/ Prescription required Eases menstrual cramps Shortens/regulates periods Decreases acne Decreases incidence ovarian cysts Prevents ovarian and uterine cancer Forms: Pills (1 pill each day for 21 days) Patch (1 patch a week for 3 weeks) Ring (worn inside for 3 weeks)

4 Male Condoms 97% effective when used properly (actual 88% effective due to human error) Prevents pregnancy and the spread of STDs Blocks egg and sperm from meeting Available in latex or polyurethane Can be combined with spermicide to increase effectiveness

5 Female Condoms 95% effective (typically 79% effective due to human error) Polyurethane Physically inserted into vagina Blocks egg and sperm from meeting

6 Emergency Contraception (ECP)
AKA Plan B and the Morning after pill Must be taken within 72 hours of unprotected sex (2 pills taken 12 hours apart) Reduces chance of pregnancy by 75% Floods ovaries with hormones and prevents ovulation Alters environment of uterus to disrupt egg and sperm

7 Depo-Provera Shot 99.7% effective at preventing pregnancy
Given once every 3 months to prevent pregnancy Stops ovulation and menstrual cycles Thickens cervical mucus Side Effects: Spotting for 3-6 months Weight change Breast tenderness Mood change

8 Spermicides Only 76% effective when used alone
Chemicals kill sperm in vagina Some work instantly, other require pre-insertion Forms: Jelly, Foam, Film, Suppository Should be used in combination with another method

9 Diaphragm 94% effective (typically 80% due to human error)
Latex barrier placed inside vagina during intercourse Fitted by physician Inserted 18 hours prior to intercourse Can be left in for a total pf 24 hours Should be used with spermicidal jelly for increased effectiveness

10 Cervical Cap Latex barrier inserted in vagina before intercourse
“caps” around cervix with suction Fill with spermicidal jelly prior to use Can be left in body for up to 48 hours Must be left in place 6 hours after intercourse 91%effective (typically only 80%)

11 Intrauterine Devices (IUD)
T-shaped object placed in the uterus to prevent pregnancy Does not protect against STDs Must be on period during insertion (may hurt 1-2 mins after insertion) Over 99% effective Prevents sperm from reaching egg Prevents egg from implanting into uterus IUD can cause a perforation in uterus Can get PID during insertion which can cause infertility Lasts up to 5 years Can be Copper or Hormonal

12 Tubal Ligation Permanent Sterilization
Surgical Procedure performed on woman Fallopian tubes are cut, tied, and cauterized Prevents eggs from reaching sperm Failure rate % May experience heavier periods

13 Vasectomy Male permanently sterilized Failure rate 0.1%
Faster and easier recovery than tubal ligation Ligation of Vas Deferens tube Prevents the release of sperm A reverse surgery is available, with 50-70% chance of pregnancy after

14 Withdrawal or Pull Out Method
Removal of penis from vagina before ejaculation occurs Not a sufficient method of birth control by itself 1 in 5 women practicing withdrawal become pregnant Very difficult for male to “control”

15 Natural Family Planning & Fertility Awareness Method
Woman take a class to learn how to calculate their more fertile times Requires special equipment and cannot be self-taught NFP: abstains from sex during fertile time FAM: uses barrier method during fertile time Typical effectiveness rate 75% But there is no 100% “safe day”

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