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Viruses Living or Not ???????.

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Presentation on theme: "Viruses Living or Not ???????."— Presentation transcript:

1 Viruses Living or Not ???????

2 Characteristics of Viruses
Among the smallest biological particles that are capable of causing diseases in living organisms Constructed of compounds associated with cells

3 Not Considered Living A virus is not a bacteria, fungus, protist, plant or animal. They can not carry out cellular functions. A virus can not replicate without infecting cells and then using the organelles and enzymes of the cells of the host.

4 A Virus Has Two Essential Features
A Nucleic Acid DNA or RNA But not both A Capsid – a protein coat surrounding the nucleic acid.

5 Some may have a membrane like structure outside the capsid called an envelop
Examples: Influenza Chickenpox Herpes-simplex HIV

6 Viral Shape The shape of the virus is determined by either its capsid or its nucleic acid Two examples of shape Icosahedron has 20 trianglular faces -- herpes simplex, chicken pox and polio Helix is a spiral shape ( like DNA) -- rabies, measles and tobacco mosaic virus

7 There are Two Types of Viruses
DNA Replicated in one of two ways Directly produce RNA that make new viral proteins Join with the host cell’s DNA to produce new viral proteins

8 RNA Viral RNA is released into the host cell’s cytoplasm and uses the ribosomes to produce new viral proteins Some are known as retroviruses containing an enzyme called reverse transcriptase. These use the RNA as a template to make DNA. This DNA is integrated into the host cell’s DNA.

9 Viroid Smallest known particles able to replicate
Short single strand of RNA No capsid Disrupts plant metabolism and may damage an entire crop

10 Prions Abnormal forms of proteins that clump in cells
Linked to diseases of the brain Consist of 250 amino acids and not associated with any nucleic acid Examples: Scrapies in sheep Mad Cow Disease in cattle                                                                         

11 What is Mad Cow Disease Mad cow disease, or bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), is a fatal brain disorder that occurs in cattle and is caused by some unknown agent. Brain cells die leaving the brain of the cow to look like a sponge. It is believed to have come from a similar disease in sheep called scrapie.

12 Viral Replication

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