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What are the six basic nutrients?

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Presentation on theme: "What are the six basic nutrients?"— Presentation transcript:

1 What are the six basic nutrients?
Make a list of as many essential nutrients as you can. Next to each nutrient, explain what that nutrient does for your body. For example, under carbohydrate, you could write provides energy. What percent of carbohydrate, protein & fat is needed in a healthy diet?

2 What is food? Satisfies hunger Source of enjoyment Part of social life Part of your culture But most importantly, it provides the energy and nutrients needed to regulate all bodily functions.

3 What is a calorie? Calorie unit of measure ENERGY
energy supplied by food energy used by the body physical activity normal body functions

4 What is a nutrient? chemical substance in food
builds, repairs, and maintains body tissues regulates body processes provides energy

5 6 Basic Nutrients Protein Carbohydrates Fats Water Vitamins Minerals

6 Make a list On the small piece of paper, please make a chart using 3 columns. Label the first one protein, second one carbs, and last one fats. List five examples of each in the columns.

7 Protein 4 Calories per gram 20 – 30% of daily caloric intake
Build, Repair, and Maintain body tissues Forms muscle, bone, blood, cell membranes, and hormones.

8 Different types of protein
Complete proteins contain all essential amino acids. Animal sources Meat, fish, chicken, turkey, milk, yogurt, and eggs. Incomplete proteins lack some amino acids Plant sources Nuts, seeds, and beans Must eat in certain combinations

9 Protein/Amino Acids Building blocks of protein 20 amino acids
11 amino acids the body can produce 9 amino acids the body can’t make Essential amino acids

10 Carbohydrates 4 calories per gram The body’s main source of energy
50 – 60% of daily caloric intake 2 types of carbohydrates Simple sugars Enter blood stream quickly Quick source of energy Complex starches, fiber, and plant foods Enter bloodstream slowly Long-lasting energy

11 What to Know About Carbohydrates
Glucose is a simple sugar that is produced when you eat complex carbohydrates. Glycogen is stored in the muscles. It is converted to glucose when you need energy.

12 There are two types of fiber:
Found in tough stringy parts of fruits, vegetables and grains Helps move waste through digestive system Helps prevent constipation, appendicitis, and intestinal problems Reduce risk of cancer and heart disease Some types help to lower blood cholesterol Recommended 25 grams/day There are two types of fiber: Insoluble fiber helps prevent constipation and is associated with reduced risk of colon cancer. Soluble fiber reduces your blood cholesterol level and your risk of developing heart disease.

13 Carbohydrates Bread Rice Pasta Potato Yams Macaroni Noodles Cereal
Oatmeal Fruit Honey Table sugar

14 Fat 9 calories per gram 20 – 30% of daily caloric intake Functions
Source of energy reserve Make vitamins usable Cushions and protects internal organs Maintain body heat Build brain cells and nerve tissues

15 Saturated Fat RDA = 20 grams Contributes to cholesterol Sources
Cholesterol is a fat-like substance made by the body and in some foods Increase cholesterol = increased risk of heart disease LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) = Sources Dairy products and egg yolks Meats, poultry Butter, lard, shortening

16 Unsaturated Fat RDA = 45 grams Contributes to heart health Sources
Good cholesterol HDL (High Density Lipoprotein) = Sources Fish Corn oil, sunflower oil, canola oil, and olive oil Polyunsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats

17 Water 8 – 8 oz. glasses per day Loss due to sweat and urine Functions
% of the body 95% of blood Carries nutrients to the cells Helps digestion (shallow & absorb nutrients) Removes body waste Regulates body temperature Cushions the spinal cord and joints

18 Vitamins Function Nutrient that helps the body use carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Two types Fat-soluble – dissolve in fat & stored in the body Vitamins A, D, E, and K Water-soluble – dissolve in water & not stored in the body Vitamins B Complex, C

19 Fat Soluble • Vitamin A: Keeps eyes, hair, and skin healthy and can be found in dairy products, fruits, and green and yellow vegetables. • Vitamin D: Aids in formation of bones and teeth; found in meat and dairy products. • Vitamin E: Helps form and maintain cells; found in green vegetables and whole-grain cereals. • Vitamin K: Necessary for normal blood clotting; found in leafy, green vegetables and cheese.

20 Vitamin B Complex Vitamin B1 , (thiamin), is necessary for the function of nerves. Vitamin B2, (riboflavin), helps the body use energy. Vitamin B3 (niacin), helps maintain healthy skin and nerve function. Vitamin B6 helps the body use fat and take in protein. Vitamin B9, (folacin), is necessary for the formation of hemoglobin in red blood cells. Vitamin B12 is necessary for the formation of red blood cells.

21 Minerals Aids in chemical reactions in the body
Macro minerals: minerals that are required in amounts greater than 100 mg. Trace minerals: minerals that are needed in very small amounts.

22 Types Macro Minerals Calcium: strength to bones and teeth (dairy products) Potassium: keeps fluids balanced within cells (green vegetables, bananas, legumes) Sodium: regulates fluids in and out of cells (salt) Phosphorus: builds bones, teeth and cells (milk, meats, poultry, legumes, cheese) Magnesium: necessary for chemical reactions during metabolism (soy products, whole grains, beans, nuts, seeds, fruit, green leafy vegetables)

23 Types of Trace Minerals
Trace Mineral and Functions Copper: necessary for the production of hemoglobin in red blood cells. Iodine: necessary for the production of thyroid gland hormone Iron: Aids in red blood cells in transporting oxygen Sources Red meat, liver, seafood, poultry, nuts, and legumes Iodized salt, milk, cheese, fish, whole-grain cereals and breads Liver, red meats, fish, eggs, legumes, and whole-grain

24 Types of Trace Minerals
Trace Mineral and Functions Manganese: aids in synthesis of cholesterol & normal function of nerve tissue Zinc: necessary for digestive enzymes & healing wounds Sources Whole grain products, leafy green vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts Seafood, red meats, milk, poultry, eggs, bread, and whole-grain cereals

25 Summarizing How many calories are in 1 gram of carb, protein, and fat?
How much water is recommended daily? What is the function of vitamins and minerals? Which type is better? Simple or complex carbohydrates Saturated or unsaturated fats Complete or incomplete proteins

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