2 Where did they come from? The AmericasAsiaNorthern Europe (before the Civil War)English, Scots, Irish, Germans, ScandinaviansSouthern Europe, Eastern Europe (After the Civil War)E. European Jews/Southern Italians/Greeks Slavic peoples (Poles, Slovaks, Czechs, Croats, Serbs, Ukrainians, Russians, Armenians)
3 To clarify…Before 1890, most European immigrants came from northwest EuropeAfter 1890, most European immigrants came from southwest Europe
21 ELLIS ISLAND “Gate to America” or “Golden Door” 70% of European immigrants arrived in NYCIn 1892 an immigration center opened at Ellis Island in NY harborImmigrants were given medical check-up and a series of questions
27 The caption reads . . .Held at Ellis Island – Undesirable emigrants to be taken back by steamship company that brought themSometimes immigrants were “quarantined” (isolated to prevent the spread of disease): tuberculosis, small pox, measlesSome were even deported due to serious diseases: trachoma or other reasons
28 Name?Occupation?Who paid your fare?Can you read or write?How much money do you have?Have you been to prison or in a poorhouse?Where are you going?Do you have a job already?
29 Many immigrants received new names Buchenroth=RothStefanopoulous= Stevens
30 Angel Island - California The Ellis Island of the West Coast
31 Angel Island San Francisco Horrible conditions On Ellis Island, immigrants were processed through within hours or days; on Angel Island, they spent weeks or months.
32 Where did immigrants settle? Most lived with friends and relatives in established communitiesCommunities formed in ports of entry (NY/Boston) and inland cities (Cleveland, Detroit, Milwaukee, Chicago)Only 2% went to the south
33 Jobs for immigrantsMines, mills, and factoriesFriends and relatives helped each otherIn other cases, a Padrone (labor boss) found jobs, provided food and shelter in exchange for large percentage of immigrant wages