6 Metals To the left of the Zigzag Malleable (smashed into thin sheets) Ductile (stretched into wires)Conduct heat and electricityShinyReactiveHigh Melting PointsMostly Solids at room temperature- except Hg (liquid)
17 Halogens Group 7: F, Cl, Br, I, At Most reactive non metals Fluorine most reactive non metalPhysical properties very within group
18 Noble Gases Group 8: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn Don’t react or combine with anyone! (Unless forced) INERT GASESLow Boiling PointsAll gases at room temperture
19 Lanthanides Elements 58-71 - All occur in nature except 61 Rare earth metalsVery reactiveHigh melting points and boiling pointsUsed in lamps, lasers, magnets, and motion picture projectors.
20 Actinides Elements 90-103 Most are synthetic (man-made) Almost all are radio activeVery denseCan be found in smoke detectors, nuclear weapons, and radio active minerals
21 Periodic LawPeriodic Law = trends that occur throughout the periodic table-Atomic Radius-Ionization Energy-Electronegativity
22 How are the elements organized? Atoms in the same group have the same number of valence electrons.Outer shell = valence shell (outside electrons)8 valence electrons= stableValence electrons determine reactivity and how strongly an atom will bond with other atoms.
23 Determine Valence Electrons These atoms want 8 valence electrons- Is it easier for them to gain or lose a certain amount of electrons?
24 Atomic Radius Trend What is atomic radius? - Distance from the nucleus to the valence electrons- It’s the size of the atom!
25 Atomic Radius-As you go across the period what happens to the atomic radius?-As you go down a group what happens to the atomic radius?
26 Atomic Radius Trend More attractions = SMALL atomic radius As you go across a period, the number of protons increases (e- increase too, but on the same energy level). More p+ can pull in e- closer, decreasing the radius.More attractions = SMALL atomic radiusAs you go down a group, e- are added to new energy levels. Each level is further from the nucleus, which increases the radius.More energy levels = LARGE atomic radius
27 ElectronegativityElectronegativity is the atom’s want to gain electronsAn atoms LOVE for electrons!!
28 Electronegativity What happens when you go across a period? Down a group?
29 ElectronegativityAs you go across a period, electrons are held more closely because the atomic radius decreases. It is easier to attract electrons, so electronegativity increases.Small radius (more attractions) = HIGH electronegativityAs you move down a group, electrons are further away from nucleus because the atomic radius increases. It is harder to attract electrons, so electronegativity decreases.Large radius (less attractions) = LOW electronegativity
30 Electronegativity Look at the dot structures! The atom that wants to GAIN electrons will have a high electronegativity!
31 Ionization energyIonization Energy is the energy needed to remove a valence electron-What do see as you go across the period?-What happens to the energy going down a group?
32 Ionization energy•As you go across a period, electrons are held more closely because the atomic radius decreases. It is easier to attract electrons, so electronegativity increases.Small radius (more attractions) = HIGH ionization energyAs you go down a group, electrons are further from nucleus because the atomic radius increases. It takes less energy to remove an electron, so the ionization energy decreases.Large radius (less attractions) = LOW ionization energyYou can also look at the dot structures!