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The Periodic Table Chapter 5 Notes
Mendeleev ● Designed first periodic table (1869) ● Arranged mostly by increasing atomic mass ● Elements in the same column have similar properties
Moseley ● Arranged by increasing atomic number
Periodic Law ● Elements’ physical and chemical properties show a periodic [“repeating”] pattern when arranged by atomic number
● COLUMN = Group or Family o Similar properties based on the same number of valence electrons o Numbered 1-18 or with Roman numerals ● ROW = Period
Valence electrons ● Electrons in the outermost shell ● Octet Rule = all atoms want 8 valence electrons to achieve stability o Exceptions: H, He
Families of the Periodic Table
Alkali Metals ● Soft ● Most reactive metals
Noble Gases ● very UNreactive ● “inert”
Halogens ● Most reactive nonmetals
Metals ● luster/shiny, good conductors of heat & electricity, malleable, ductile ● LEFT SIDE of periodic table
Nonmetals ● not shiny, poor conductors, not malleable or ductile, brittle ● RIGHT SIDE of periodic table
Metalloids ● “semi-metals” ● some properties of metals, some of nonmetals ● touch ZIG-ZAG LINE
Atomic Radius ● Distance from the nucleus to the outer electrons ● Decreases across a row ● Increases down a column
Explanation of Atomic Radius increasing down a column
Explanation of Atomic Radius decreasing across a row
Electronegativity ● Ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself o Increases across a row o Decreases down a column
Ionization Energy ● Energy needed to remove an electron ● Increases across a row ● Decreases down a column
Electron Affinity ● How much an atom wants to gain an electron o Decreases down a column o Increases across a row
Think about Corners
Practice- Circle your answer choice Larger atomic radius? 1) Mg or Sr 2) Mg or S Larger electronegativity? 3) P or Sb 4) Ge or Br Larger ionization energy? 5) Ca or Se 6) Ca or Ra
Ion Size ● Cation – atom loses electron o Atom gets smaller ● Anion – atom gains electron o Atom gets bigger
Exampl e of Ion Size
Anatomy of the Periodic Table
Periodic Table. Atom Neutral atom has equal number of protons and electrons + charges = - charges Overall charge of zero (neutral)
TMI the periodic table is telling you more than you want to know.
Periodic Table and Trends
CHAPTER 6 NOTES: The Periodic Table
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