2 Organizing ElementsChemists used the properties of elements to sort them into groups.Mendeleev arranged the elements in his period table in order of increasing mass.In the modern periodic table, elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic mass.Periodic law stated that when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic separation of their physical and chemical properties.
3 Organizing Elements Recall Groups (Families) are the columnsPeriods are the rowRepresentative elements are in groups 1A through 7A (1,2 and 13-17). They display a wide range of physical and chemical properties.the s and p sublevels of representative elements are not filled.
4 Organizing Elements Representative elements include Alkali Metals in group 1 or 1aAlkaline Earth in Metals group 2 or 2aCarbon Family in group 14 or 4aNitrogen Family in group 15 or 5aOxygen Family in group 16 or 6aHalogens in group 17 or 7a
5 Organizing Elements Other Families/Groups Transition Metals in groups 3-12 or 3b to 2bThese elements are characterized by d orbital’s that contain electrons.Noble Gases in group 18 or 8aHave full p orbitalsLanthanide Series top row in F blockActinide Series bottom row in F blockInner transition metals include the Lanthanide and Actinide Series (bottom two rows pulled out of periodic table)These elements are characterized by f orbital’s that contain electrons.
6 Classes of ElementsThree classes of elements are metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.Metals are good conductors of heat and electric currentAre found on the left side of the periodic tableMetals are solid at room temperature (except mercury).Metals are ductile (can be drawn into wires) and Malleable (hammered in to sheets)Nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and electric current.Are found on the right side of the periodic tableSolid nonmetals tend to be brittle.Most are gasses at room temperatureMetalloids (or semi metals) have properties similar to metals and non metals.Sit on the dark line (red on ours)
8 Periodic TrendsMetallic Nature: as you move across a period (left to right) the elements get less metallic; as you move down a group the elements get more metallic. Francium is most metallic element.Metallic Nature DECREASESMetallic Nature INCREASES
9 Metallic Nature Practice List the elements in order of INCREASING metallic nature: As F Fr Hf PdWhich element is the least metallic? Ca Ga Ge KrList the elements in order of DECREASING metallic nature: Fr Hg I Nd Pb XeAccording to metallic trends what is the least metallic element on the periodic table.
10 Metallic Nature Practice Answers List the elements in order of INCREASING metallic nature: As F Fr Hf Pd F<As<Pd<Hf<FrWhich element is the least metallic? Ca Ga Ge Kr Krypton (Kr)List the elements in order of DECREASING metallic nature: Fr Hg I Nd Pt Xe Fr> Nb>Pt >Hg>I>XeAccording to metallic trends what is the least metallic element on the periodic table. Helium
11 Periodic Trends Atomic Charge the charge in the nucleus of the atom Atomic mass the mass of the elementBoth generally increase as you move across a period and down a familyAtomic Charge and mass INCREASESAtomic Charge and mas INCREASES
12 Periodic TrendsAtomic radius is one half of the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same elements when the atoms are joined.In general, atomic size increases from top to bottom within a group because you are adding energy levels (shielding effect is greater)and decreases from left to right across a period because of effective nuclear charge (greater pull on electrons due to addition of proton)Atomic Radius INCREASESAtomic Radius DECREASES
13 What is effective nuclear charge and shielding effect? The effective nuclear charge is the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a multi-electron atom.The term "effective" is used because the shielding effect of negatively charged electrons prevents higher orbital electrons from experiencing the full nuclear charge by the repelling effect of inner-layer electrons.The shielding effect describes the decrease in attraction between an electron and the nucleus in any atom with more than one electron shell.when more electrons are involved, each electron feels not only the electromagnetic attraction from the positive nucleus, but also repulsion forces from other electrons in other shells. This causes the net force on electrons in outer shells to be significantly smaller in magnitude. Because of this these electrons are not as strongly bonded to the nucleus as electrons closer to the nucleus
14 Atomic Mass, Radius and Charge Practice Arrange in order of increasing atomic Radius: I In Mo Pd Sr TeArrange in order of decreasing atomic mass: I In Mo Pd Sr TeArrange in order of increasing atomic mass: Ac Ca Lr Pa Te ThWhat element has the smallest atomic radius?What element has the smallest atomic mass?
15 Atomic Mass, Radius and Charge Practice Answers Arrange in order of increasing atomic Radius: I In Mo Pd Sr Te I<Te<In<Pd<Mo<SrArrange in order of decreasing atomic mass: I In Mo Pd Sr Te I>Te>In>Pd>Mo>SrArrange in order of increasing atomic mass: Ac Ca Lr Pa Te Th Ca<Te<Ac<Pa<Th<LrWhat element has the smallest atomic radius? HeliumWhat element has the smallest atomic mass? Hydrogen
16 Periodic TrendsIons is an atom or groups of atoms that has a positive or negative charge.Positive and negative ions from when electrons are transferred between atoms.Cation is an atom or groups of atoms with a positive charge that have lost electrons.Metals form CationsAnion is an atom or groups of atoms with a negative charge that have gained electrons.Nonmetals form Anions
17 Group 1a forms +1 ionGroup 2a forms +2 ionGroup 3a forms +3 ionGroup 4a can form +4 or -4Group 5a forms -3 ionGroup 6a forms -2 ionGroup 7a forms -1 ionGroup 8 a will not react or form ions
18 Ion PracticeWrite the ion that each of the following elements will form:AlKBrMgCsPCaRnClSGaSe
19 Ion Practice AnswersWrite the ion that each of the following elements will form:Al+3K-1Br-1Mg+2Cs+1P-3Ca+2Rn (no ion forms)Cl-1S-2Ga+3Se-2
20 Periodic TrendsElements form Ions to achieve a noble gas electron configuration (a full outer shell)Full outer energy shells for MOST atoms contain 8 valance electrons.As metals lose electrons they form a positive charge (cation) and their radius shrinksThe greater the charge the smaller the radiusAs nonmetals gain electrons they form a negative charge (anion) and their radius expandsThe greater the charge the larger the radius
21 Periodic TrendsIonic radius the radius of an atom that has formed an ion by losing or gaining electronsIn general, ionic radius increases from top to bottom within a group because you are adding energy levelsand decreases from left to right across a period because of the removal/addition of electronsAtomic Radius INCREASESAtomic Radius DECREASES
22 Ionic & Atomic Radius practice Use grater than (>) or less than (<) to show how the size of the atoms and ions are related.Na Na+1Br Ca+2Al Al+3S S-2Al Na+1Al P-3Arrange in order of increasing Ionic size I Mg Na Rb Sr Sb
23 Periodic TrendsIonization energy is the energy required to remove the first electron from an atomFirst ionization energy tends to decrease from top to bottom within a group and increase from left to right across a period.Ionization Energy DECREASESIonization Energy INCREASES
24 Periodic TrendsElectronegativity is the ability of an atom of an element to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound.Electronegativity values decrease from top to bottom within a group, and values tend to increase from left to right across a period.MOST electronegativite element is FluorineElectronegativity DECREASESElectronegativity INCREASES
25 Electronegativity & Ionization Energy Practice What is most Electronegative element?What is element with highest Ionization energy?Put in order of decreasing ionization energy: Cs Fr K Li Na RbPut in order of increasing electronegativity: Al Cl Mg S PPut in order of decreasing ionization energy: Ag I In Mo Rb Y
26 Electronegativity & Ionization Energy Practice Answers What is most Electronegative element? FluorineWhat is element with highest Ionization energy? HeliumPut in order of decreasing ionization energy: Cs Fr K Li Na Rb Li> Na> K> Rb> Cs> FrPut in order of increasing electronegativity: Al Cl Mg S P Mg< Al< P< S< ClPut in order of decreasing ionization energy: Ag I In Mo Rb Y I> In> Mo> Y>Rb