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1 Chapter 2 Using Dietary Recommendations, Food Guides, and Food Labels to Plan Menus.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 2 Using Dietary Recommendations, Food Guides, and Food Labels to Plan Menus."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 2 Using Dietary Recommendations, Food Guides, and Food Labels to Plan Menus

2 2 Dietary Recommendations & Food Guides Dietary recommendations Discuss specific foods to eat for optimum health Food guides Tell us the amounts of foods we need to eat to have a nutritionally adequate diet Based on current dietary recommendations, the nutrient content of foods, and the eating habits of the targeted population

3 3 The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2005) Provides science-based advice to promote health and reduce risk for chronic diseases thru diet and physical activity Recommendations are targeted to the general public over 2 years of age in the US By law the Dietary Guidelines is updated every 5 years HHS & USDA

4 4 1. Adequate Nutrients Within Kcal Needs Meet recommended intakes within energy needs by adopting a balanced eating pattern such as that in MyPyramid. This food guide is designed to integrate dietary recommendations into a healthy way to eat. MyPyramid differs in important ways from common food consumption patterns in the United States. In general, MyPyramid recommends: More dark green vegetables, orange vegetables, legumes, fruits, whole grains, and low-fat milk and milk products Less refined grains, total fats (especially cholesterol, and saturated and trans fats), added sugar, and kcalories.

5 5 1. Adequate Nutrients Within Kcal Needs Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages within and among the basic food groups while choosing foods that limit the intake of saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcohol.

6 6 2. Weight Management To maintain body weight in a healthy range, balance kcalories from foods and beverages with kcalories expended. To prevent gradual weight gain over time, make small decreases in food and beverage kcalories and increase physical activity.

7 7 3. Physical Activity Engage in regular physical activity and reduce sedentary activities to promote health, psychological well-being, and a healthy body weight. To reduce the risk of chronic disease in adulthood, engage in at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity, above usual activity, on most days of the week. For most people, greater health benefits can be obtained by engaging in physical activity of more vigorous intensity or longer duration. To help manage body weight and prevent gradual, unhealthy body weight gain in adulthood, engage in approximately 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous- intensity activity on most days of the week while not exceeding caloric intake requirements.

8 8 3. Physical Activity Achieve physical fitness by including: cardiovascular conditioning, stretching exercises for flexibility, and resistance exercises or calisthenics for muscle strength and endurance.

9 9 4. Food Groups to Encourage _________________________

10 10 5. Fats Consume less than 10% of kcalories from saturated fatty acids and less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol, and keep trans fatty acid consumption as low as possible. Keep total fat intake between 20 to 35% of kcalories, with most fats coming from sources of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acid, such as fish, nuts, and vegetable oils.

11 11 5. Fats When selecting and preparing meat, poultry, dry beans, and milk or milk products, make choices that are lean, low-fat, or fat-free. Limit intake of fats and oils high in saturated and/or trans fatty acids, and choose products low in such fats and oils.

12 12 6. Carbohydrates Choose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, and whole grains often. Choose and prepare foods and beverages with little added sugars or caloric sweeteners, such as amounts suggested by MyPyramid.

13 13 Whole Grains Whole wheat Whole oats/oatmeal Whole corn Popcorn Brown rice Whole rye Bulgur Millet Quinoa Sorghum

14 14 7. Sodium and Potassium Consume less than 2,300 mg (about 1 teaspoon of salt) of sodium per day. Choose and prepare foods with little salt. Eat potassium-rich foods such as fruits and vegetables.

15 15 8. Alcoholic Beverages Moderation __ drinks/day for men and women 1 drink = _______beer _______ wine _______ distilled spirits

16 16 9. Food Safety To avoid microbial foodborne illness: Clean hands, food contact surfaces, and fruit and vegetables. Meat and poultry should not be washed or rinsed. Separate raw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foods while shopping, preparing, or storing foods. Cook foods to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms. Chill (refrigerate) perishable food promptly and defrost foods properly. Avoid raw (unpasteurized) milk or any products made from raw milk, raw or partially cooked eggs or foods containing raw eggs.

17 17 MyPyramid

18 18 MyPyramid (cont’d)

19 19 Activity Proportionality Moderation Variety Personalization Gradual Improvement

20 20 Message: Variety In the Dietary Guidelines: Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages within and among the basic food groups. In MyPyramid graphic: Color bands represent that all food groups are needed each day for health.

21 21 Food Groups are Color Coded

22 22 Message: Proportionality In the Dietary Guidelines: Adopt a balanced eating pattern. Sufficient amount of fruits and vegetables, 3 or more ounce equivalents of whole-grain products per day 3 cup equivalents per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or milk products. In MyPyramid graphic: Differing widths of the color bands suggest about how much food should be eaten from each group.

23 23 Message: Moderation In the Dietary Guidelines: Limit intake of saturated and trans fats, and choose products low in these fats. Make choices of meat, poultry, dry beans, and milk products that are lean, low-fat, or fat-free. Choose and prepare foods and beverages with little added sugars or calorie sweeteners. In MyPyramid graphic: Food group bands narrow from bottom to top suggesting to eat nutrient-dense forms of foods.

24 24 Message: Physical Activity In the Dietary Guidelines: Engage in regular physical activity and reduce sedentary activities to promote health, psychological well-being, and a healthy body weight. In MyPyramid graphic: Steps and person on them symbolize that physical activity should be a part of everyday healthy living.

25 25 Additional Messages in the MyPyramid Graphic Personalization: The name “MyPyramid” suggests an individual approach. The person climbing the steps mentally links each viewer to the image. Gradual Improvement: The slogan “Steps to a Healthier You” suggests that improvement should happen in stages, over time.

26 26 Grains 1 ounce equivalent = 1 slice bread 1 small muffin 1 cup ready-to-eat cereal flakes ½ cup cooked rice, pasta, or cooked cereal Make half your grain choices whole grains.

27 27 Vegetables Subgroups Dark green vegetables Orange vegetables Beans Starchy vegetables Other vegetables 1 cup vegetables = 1 cup cut-up raw or cooked vegetables 1 cup vegetable juice 2 cups leafy salad greens (raw)

28 28 Fruits 1 cup fruit = 1 cup cut-up raw or cooked fruit 1 cup 100% fruit juice

29 29 Milk 1 cup milk = 1 cup milk or yogurt 1-1/2 ounces natural cheese (such as cheddar) 2 ounces processed cheese (such as American)

30 30 Meat & Beans 1 ounce-equivalent = 1 ounce lean meat, poultry, or fish 1 egg ¼ cup cooked dry beans or tofu 1 tablespoon peanut butter ½ ounce nuts or seeds

31 31 Oils Oils provide: polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E, and essential fatty acids

32 32 Discretionary Calories May be used to: Increase amount of food selected from a food group Consume foods that are not in the lowest fat form— such as 2% milk or medium-fat meat or items that contain added sugars Add oil, fat, or sugar to foods Consume alcohol (for those who consume alcohol)

33 33 Nutrient Contributions - Fruit Food GroupMajor Contribution(s) * Substantial Contribution** Fruit GroupVitamin CThiamin Vitamin B6 Folate Magnesium Copper Potassium Carbohydrate Fiber * Major Contribution means that the food group or subgroup provides more of the nutrient than any other single food group, averaged over all calorie levels. When 2 food groups of subgroups provide equal amounts, it is noted as a tie. ** Substantial Contribution means that the food group or subgroup provides 10% or more of the total amount of the nutrient in the food patterns, averaged over all calorie levels. Source: 2005 Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee.

34 34 Nutrient Contributions - Vegetables Vegetable GroupVitamin AVitamin E Vitamin C Thiamin Niacin Vitamin B6 Folate Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Iron Zinc Copper Carbohydrate Fiber Alpha-linolenic acid

35 35 Nutrient Contributions – Vegetables (cont’d) Vegetable Subgroups Dark Green Vegetables Vitamin A Vitamin C Orange Vegetables Vitamin A LegumesFolate Copper Fiber Vitamin B6 Copper Other VegetablesVitamin C

36 36 Nutrient Contributions – Grains Grain GroupThiaminVitamin A FolateRiboflavin MagnesiumNiacin IronVitamin B6 CopperVitamin B12 CarbohydrateCalcium FiberPhosphorus Zinc Potassium Protein Linoleic acid Alpha-linolenic acid

37 37 Nutrient Contributions – Grains (cont’d) Grain Subgroups Whole GrainsFolate (tie)Thiamin MagnesiumRiboflavin IronNiacin CopperVitamin B6 Carbohydrate (tie)Vitamin B12 FiberPhosphorus Zinc Protein Enriched GrainsFolate (tie)Riboflavin ThiaminNiacin Carbohydrate (tie)Iron Copper

38 38 Nutrient Contributions – Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nuts Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nuts Group NiacinVitamin E Vitamin B6Thiamin ZincRiboflavin ProteinVitamin B12 Phosphorus Magnesium Iron Copper Potassium Linoleic acid

39 39 Nutrient Contributions – Milk Milk GroupRiboflavinVitamin A Vitamin B12Thiamin CalciumVitamin B6 PhosphorusMagnesium Zinc Potassium Carbohydrate Protein

40 40 Nutrient Contributions – Oil and soft margarine Oils and soft margarines Vitamin E Linoleic acid Alpha-linolenic acid

41 41 Focus on fruits. Vary your veggies. Get your calcium-rich foods. Make half your grains whole. Go lean with protein. Know the limits on fats, salt, and sugars. Key food group messages from the Dietary Guidelines and MyPyramid:

42 42

43 43 Planning Menus Using MyPyramid 1. Does a day’s menu on the average provide at least the number of servings required from each of the major food groups for a 2000-kcalorie diet? 2. Are most of the menu items nutrient-dense (without solid fat or sugars added)? 3. Does the menu have whole-grain breads, etc. at each meal? 4. Are most meat and poultry items lean? 5. Are fish, beans, and other meat alternates available? 6. Does the menu include servings from each of the vegetable subgroups: dark orange, green, beans, starchy, and other?

44 44 Planning Menus Using MyPyramid (cont’d) 7. Do most veggies and fruits have their skins and seeds? 8. Are there more choices for fresh, canned, or dried fruit than for fruit juices? 9. Are low-fat or fat-free milk and other dairy choices available? 10. Are the fruit juices 100% juice? 11. Are foods (especially desserts) high in fat, sugar, and/or sodium balanced with choices lower in these nutrients? 12. Are unsweetened beverages available?

45 45 An Adaptation of the Pyramid

46 46 Food Labels Required on Labels: Food Name Ingredient List Net weight Name and address of manufacturer Nutrition Facts

47 47 Nutrition Facts Daily Value: A set of nutrient-intake values developed by the Food and Drug Administration used as a reference for expressing nutrient content on nutrition labels.

48 48 Nutrient Content Claims Claims on food labels about the nutrient composition of a food. Regulated by the FDA. Examples: Low calorie – 40 kcal or less Low fat – 3 grams or less of fat High in….. – 20% or more of Daily Value Healthy – Low in fat and saturated fat, contains no more than20% of DV for sodium and cholesterol, contains at least 10% of DV for 1 of the following: vitamin A or C, calcium, iron, protein, fiber

49 49 Health Claims Claims on food labels that state certain foods or food substances – as part of an overall healthy diet – may reduce the risk of certain diseases. Must be approved by FDA. Example: “Diets low in sodium may reduce the risk of high blood pressure, a disease associated with many factors.” (An “A” claim) This claim may be put on foods that meet the criteria for low sodium (140 mg sodium or less).

50 50 Ranking System for Health Claims Courtesy of USDA

51 51 Portion Size Comparisons Portion sizes in the Food Guide Pyramid do not always match the serving sizes on food labels. Food labels allow consumers to compare the nutrients in two products. Portion sizes in the US have been steadily increasing.

52 52 Clip art images may not be saved or downloaded and are only to be used for viewing purposes. Copyright ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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