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© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 Designing a Healthful Diet.

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1 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 Designing a Healthful Diet

2 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. A Healthful Diet A healthful diet provides the proper combination of energy and nutrients A healthful diet is: Adequate Moderate Balanced Varied

3 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. A Healthful Diet Is Adequate An adequate diet provides enough energy, nutrients, fiber, and vitamins to maintain a person’s health Undernutrition occurs if a person’s diet contains inadequate levels of several nutrients for a long period of time

4 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. A Healthful Diet Is Moderate Moderation refers to eating any foods in moderate amounts—not too much and not too little

5 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. A Healthful Diet Is Balanced A balanced diet contains the combinations of foods that provide the proper proportions of nutrients

6 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. A Healthful Diet Is Varied Variety refers to eating many different foods from the different food groups on a regular basis

7 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Designing a Healthful Diet The tools for designing a healthful diet include: Food labels Dietary Guidelines for Americans MyPyramid

8 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Food Labels The FDA requires food labels on most products. These labels must include: 1.A statement of identity 2.Net contents of the package 3.Ingredient list 4.Manufacturer’s name and address 5.Nutrition information (Nutrition Facts Panel) Reading Labels

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10 Nutrition Facts Panel Learn more about an individual food Compare one food with another

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12 Nutrition Facts Panel 1.Serving size and servings per container Serving sizes are based on the amounts people typically eat for each food 2.Calories and calories from fat per serving This information can be used to determine if a product is relatively high in fat

13 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Nutrition Facts Panel 3.List of nutrients Fat (total, saturated, trans) Cholesterol Sodium Fiber Some vitamins and minerals

14 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Nutrition Facts Panel 4.Percent Daily Values (%DVs) How much a serving of food contributes to your overall intake of the listed nutrients Compare %DV between foods for nutrients Less than 5% DV of a nutrient is considered low More than 20% DV of a nutrient is considered high

15 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Nutrition Facts Panel 5.Footnote %DV is based on a 2,000-calorie diet Table illustrates the difference between a 2,000-calorie and 2,500-calorie diet May not be present on all food labels ABC Video Food Labels and Portion Size

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17 Nutrition Facts Panel Nutrient and health claims Must meet FDA-approved definitions Example: “low in sodium” indicates that the particular food contains 140 mg or less of sodium per serving Structure–function claims Made without FDA approval, proof, or guarantees that any benefits are true Example: “Improves memory”

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20 Dietary Guidelines Dietary Guidelines for Americans Developed by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services General advice for healthful diet and lifestyle Updated every 5 years Most recent update was in 2005

21 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs Key Recommendations Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods Choose foods that are limited in saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcohol Balanced eating patterns USDA Food Guide (MyPyramid) DASH eating plan

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23 Weight Management Overweight or obesity increases the risk for many chronic diseases: Heart disease, diabetes, stroke, some cancers Key recommendations: Maintain body weight within healthful range by balancing calories from foods and beverages with calories expended Prevent weight gain—make small decreases in calorie intake and increase physical activity

24 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Physical Activity Key recommendations: Regular physical activities promote health, psychological well-being, and healthful weight Physical fitness includes cardiovascular conditioning, stretching exercises for flexibility, and resistance exercise 30 minutes daily minimum of moderate activity most days of the week 60–90 min./day on most days of the week to prevent weight gain or promote weight loss

25 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Food Groups to Encourage A variety of fruits and vegetables Key nutrients: vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, and potassium Sufficient amounts of fruits and vegetables each day while staying within energy needs Choose a variety from five vegetable subgroups 3 or more ounces/day of whole-grain foods 3 cups/day of low-fat or fat-free milk or equivalent

26 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Fats Essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins Energy dense Diets high in saturated fats, trans fats, and cholesterol increase risk for heart disease Key recommendations: Less than 10% of calories from saturated fat Less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol Trans fats should be as low as possible Total fats: 20–30% of total calories (lean protein sources)

27 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Carbohydrates Important source of energy and essential nutrients Key recommendations: Choose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, whole grains Prepare foods with little added sugar Limit intake of foods high in sugar and starch Reduce the risk of dental caries (cavities):  Practice good oral hygiene  Eat foods high in sugar and starch less frequently

28 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Sodium and Potassium Essential for health in appropriate amounts Potassium is linked to healthful blood pressure Excess sodium consumption: Linked to high blood pressure in some people Can cause loss of calcium from bones Key recommendations: Consume less than 2,300 mg/day sodium (1 tsp. salt) Choose and prepare foods with little salt Consume potassium-rich foods (fruits, vegetables)

29 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Alcoholic Beverages Alcohol provides energy, but not nutrients Depresses the nervous system Toxic to the liver and other body cells Excess can lead to health and social problems

30 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Alcoholic Beverages Key recommendations: Drink sensibly and in moderation  Moderation: 1 drink for women, 2 for men per day People who should not drink alcohol include:  Women of child-bearing age who may become pregnant  Pregnant or lactating women, children, adolescents  Persons on medications that can interact with alcohol  People who are engaging in activities that require attention, skill, or coordination

31 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Food Safety Healthful diet is safe from food-borne illness Important tips: Store and cook foods at the proper temperatures Avoid unpasteurized juices and milk, raw or undercooked meats and shellfish Wash hands and cooking surfaces before cooking and after handling raw meats, shellfish, and eggs

32 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. USDA Food Guide: MyPyramid MyPyramid is used to plan a healthful diet Conceptual framework for the types and amounts of foods that make up a healthful diet Will change as more is learned about nutrition Based on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary Reference Intakes Personalized guide accessible on the Internet

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34 MyPyramid MyPyramid is intended to help Americans Eat in moderation Eat a variety of foods Consume the right proportion of each recommended food group Personalize their eating plan Increase their physical activity Set goals for gradually improving their food choices and lifestyle

35 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. MyPyramid Six food groups: 1.Grains 2.Vegetables 3.Fruits 4.Oils 5.Milk 6.Meat

36 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. MyPyramid: Grains “Make half your grains whole” Eat at least 3 ounces of whole-grain breads, cereal, crackers, rice, or pasta each day Foods in this group provide fiber-rich carbohydrates and are good sources of the nutrients riboflavin, thiamin, niacin, iron, folate, zinc, protein, and magnesium ABC Video Whole Grains

37 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. MyPyramid: Vegetables and Fruits “Vary your veggies” Eat more dark green and orange vegetables and more dry beans and peas “Focus on fruits” Go easy on fruit juices Fruits and vegetables are good sources of carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins A and C, folate, potassium, and magnesium

38 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. MyPyramid: Vegetables and Fruits Phytochemicals Naturally occurring plant chemicals such as pigments that enhance health Work together in whole foods in a unique way to provide health benefits Found in soy, garlic, onions, teas, coffee Scientific study of phytochemicals is new May reduce risks for chronic diseases (cancer and cardiovascular disease)

39 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. MyPyramid: Oils “Know your fats” Encourage selection of health-promoting forms of fats: fat from fish, nuts, and vegetable oils Sources of vitamin E and essential fatty acids Limit solid fats: butter, stick margarine, shortening, lard, and visible fat on meat

40 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. MyPyramid: Milk “Get your calcium-rich foods” Suggest low-fat or fat-free dairy products People who cannot consume dairy can choose lower- lactose or lactose-free dairy products or other calcium sources: Calcium-fortified juices; soy and rice beverages Dairy foods are good sources of calcium, phosphorus, riboflavin, protein, vitamin B 12 Many are fortified with vitamins A and D

41 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. MyPyramid: Meat and Beans “Go lean on protein” Include meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, nuts Encourage low-fat or lean meats and poultry Cooking methods: baking, broiling, grilling Good sources of protein, phosphorus, vitamins B 6 and B 12, magnesium, iron, zinc, niacin, riboflavin, and thiamin Legumes: good sources of fiber and vitamins (vegetables), proteins and minerals (meats)

42 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. MyPyramid: Discretionary Calories New concept Represent the extra energy a person can consume after he or she has met all essential needs by consuming nutrient-dense foods Depends upon age, gender, physical activity Foods that use discretionary calories:  fats: butter, salad dressing, mayonnaise, gravy  high-sugar foods: candies, desserts, soft drinks

43 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. MyPyramid: How Much of Each Food? The number of servings for each section of the pyramid is based on the recommended calorie level Ounce-equivalent is used to define a serving size for the grains and meats and beans sections

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45 MyPyramid: Serving Sizes What is considered a serving size? Grains (1 ounce-equivalent) 1 slice of bread 1 cup ready-to-eat cereal 1/2 cup cooked rice, pasta, or cereal Vegetables (1 cup-equivalent) 2 cups raw leafy vegetable (spinach) 1 cup chopped raw or cooked vegetable (broccoli)

46 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. MyPyramid: Serving Sizes What is considered a serving size? Meats (1 ounce-equivalent) 3-oz. meat is 3 oz-equivalents 1 egg, 1 tablespoon peanut butter, and 1/4 cup cooked dry beans are 1 oz-equivalents in the meat and beans group

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48 MyPyramid: Serving Sizes There is no national standardized definition for a serving size of any food Serving size may differ from food labels Check the Nutrition Facts Panel for the serving sizes of packaged foods

49 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Alternate Food Guide Pyramids Variations of MyPyramid not yet developed for diverse populations Adaptations of previous versions of USDA Food Guide Pyramid: Athletes—emphasized fluid replacement Children and adults over age 70 Mediterranean Diet Pyramid Ethnic and cultural variations

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52 Eating Out on a Healthful Diet Eating in restaurants often involves: High-calorie, high-fat, and high-sodium foods Large portion sizes A restaurant meal can be equivalent to the recommended fat or calorie intake for an entire day! Educated consumers can make wise meal choices while dining out ABC Video Fast-Food Trends

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