Presentation on theme: "Dietary Guidelines for Americans and Dietary Reference Intakes: The Science Basis for Health 4th State Units on Aging Nutritionists & Administrators Conference."— Presentation transcript:
1 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and Dietary Reference Intakes: The Science Basis for Health 4th State Units on Aging Nutritionists & Administrators Conference August 29, Kathryn Y. McMurry, M.S. Senior Nutrition Advisor Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
2 ODPHP MissionProvide leadership, coordination, and policy development for disease prevention and health promotion for the Department of Health and Human ServicesPrevention FrameworkHealthierUSHealthy PeoplePrevention CommunicationNational Health Information CenterHealthfinder.govPrevention ScienceDietary Guidelines for AmericansPrevention Scholarship
3 Overview Why are Dietary Guidelines important? What is their scientific basis?What are the recommendations?
4 What are the Dietary Guidelines? Science-based advice for healthy ages 2+Promote health, prevent chronic diseaseFederal nutrition policy/programsUpdated every 5 yrs.HHS/USDA jointly publishThe Guidelines are science-based advice for Americans 2 years and older.The Sixth Edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans was released on January 12, 2005The Guidelines must be issued at least every 5 years by law. (Public Law , Title III, 7 U.S.Code 301 )Government vehicle to speak with one voiceIt’s essentially Dietary guidance issued by the Federal government, which were reviewed by the Secretaries of Agriculture and Health and Human Services
5 Goal of Dietary Guidelines IMPROVE HEALTHWhat is a healthy dietIncreasing awarenessProviding healthy optionsPromoting healthy choicesKeep in mind ultimate goal:to improve the health and well-being of Americans.By increasing awareness of what constitutes a healthy dietMaking sure that healthy options are availablePromoting healthy choices
6 Nutrition and Health *Cardiovascular Disease—38.5% of deaths *Hypertension—25% of adults*Dyslipidemia—25% adults have borderline high LDL cholesterol*Type 2 Diabetes—6% of population*Overweight and Obesity—65% of adults/ 15% of children*Some CancersOsteoporosisConstipationDiverticular DiseaseIron Deficiency AnemiaOral Disease
7 Dietary Reference Intakes Since 1941, RDAs established by the Food and Nutrition Board, National Academy of Sciences (NAS)Most recent versions established between 1997 to Dietary References Intakes (DRIs)DRI studies supported by U.S. and CanadaFederal government sponsorship of NAS process to ensure independent scientific analysis of the data.
8 Dietary Reference Intakes Reports Calcium, Vitamin D and Related NutrientsFolate and Related NutrientsAntioxidantsMicronutrientsEnergy & MacronutrientsElectrolytes and WaterDRIs & Dietary AssessmentDRIs & Dietary Planning
9 Revision of Dietary Guidelines Scientific Advisory Committee Appointed3-4 Public MeetingsConsumer Focus GroupsCommittee Reports to USDA and HHSPublic Comment periodHHS and USDA ReviewHHS and USDA Publish GuidelinesAnd how are the revisions to the Dietary Guidelines made?Beginning with the 2nd edition, USDA and HHS appointed a Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee of prominent experts in nutrition and health to review the scientific and medical knowledge current at the time and recommend to the Secretaries of USDA and HHS any revisions to the previous Guidelines that they felt were warranted.The Committee operates through an open, public process, and produces a report of its recommendations and rationale to the Secretaries of USDA and HHS.Consumer focus groups to make sure concepts/ terminology understandable to son-scientistsDepartments then review the Committee recommendations and publish the revised Guidelines.Public comments are received throughout the Committee deliberations, and for first time in 2000 public comment period held on Committee report.
11 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005 41 key recommendations: 23 general/ 18 specific9 focus areasAdequate Nutrients Within Calorie NeedsWeight ManagementPhysical ActivityFood Groups To EncourageFatsCarbohydratesSodium and PotassiumAlcoholic BeveragesFood SafetyThe 2005 Dietary Guidelines contain 41 recommendations in 9 focus areas. 23 are general recommendations and 18 are for specific populations.Let me take you through two of the topic areas that I know you are most interested in - physical activity and weight management.
12 New for 2005 More comprehensive recommendations More specificity in policy2000 calorie reference dietCups and ounces rather than servingsEnergy balance themeConsumer research for messaging
13 What is a Healthy Eating Plan? Emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk productsIncludes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nutsIs low in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, salt (sodium), and added sugarsBalances calorie intake with calorie needs
14 Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages in basic food groupsChoose foods that limit intake of saturated and trans fat, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcoholDASH and MyPyramid: healthy eating pattern examplesStay within calorie needsOlder Adults: Consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplementsMeet recommended intakes by adopting a balanced eating pattern, such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Guide or the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Eating Plan. Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages within and among the basic food groups while choosing foods that limit the intake of saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcohol.Meet recommended intakes within energy needs by adopting a balanced eating pattern, such as the USDA Food Guide or the DASH Eating Plan.
15 Weight ManagementTo maintain body weight in a healthy range, balance calories from foods and beverages with calories expended.To prevent gradual weight gain over time, make small decreases in food and beverage calories and increase physical activityTo maintain body weight in a healthy range, balance calories from foods and beverages with calories expended.To prevent gradual weight gain over time, make small decreases in food and beverage calories and increase physical activity.
16 Physical Activity Recommendations AdultsAt least 30 minutes to reduce risk of chronic diseaseUp to 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity may be needed to prevent gradual weight gain that occurs over time60 to 90 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity to sustain weight lossOlder Adults – Regular physical activity to reduce functional declines and achieve health benefitsChildren and adolescents– At least 60 minutes on most, preferably all, days of the week
17 Food Groups To Encourage Fruits & VegetablesConsume enough while staying within energy needs(For 2000 calories: 2 cups fruit, 2½ cups vegetables)Choose a variety—fresh, frozen, canned, driedGrainsConsume 3 oz.-equivalents of whole grains daily— at least half whole grains (rest enriched)MilkConsume 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk productsConsume a sufficient amount of fruits and vegetables while staying within energy needs. Two cups of fruit and 21/2 cups of vegetables per day are recommended for a reference 2,000-calorie intake, with higher or lower amounts depending on the calorie level.Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables each day. In particular, select from all five vegetable subgroups (dark green, orange, legumes, starchy vegetables, and other vegetables) several times a week.Consume 3 or more ounce-equivalents of whole-grain products per day, with the rest of the recommended grains coming from enriched or whole-grain products. In general, at least half the grains should come from whole grains.Consume 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products.
18 Fats Saturated fat < 10 % of calories Cholesterol < 300 mg/day Trans fat as low as possibleTotal fat between 20 to 35 % caloriesMost fats from sources of PUFAs and MUFAs, such as fish, nuts, and vegetable oilsSelect and prepare meat, poultry, dry beans, and milk or milk products that are lean, low-fat, or fat-freeLimit intake of fats and oils high in saturated and/or trans fatty acids
19 Carbohydrates Choose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, and whole grains Choose and prepare foods and beverages with little added sugars or caloric sweetenersConsume sugar- and starch-containing foods and beverages less frequently to reduce caries
20 Sodium and PotassiumConsume < 2,300 mg (~1 tsp. salt) of sodium per day [<1,500 mg] *Choose and prepare foods with little saltConsume potassium-rich foods, such as fruits and vegetables.[4,700 mg potassium from food]**Individuals with hypertension, blacks, and middle-agedand older adultsConsume less than 2,300 mg (~1 tsp. salt) of sodium per day.
21 Alcoholic BeveragesThose who choose to drink alcoholic beverages should do so sensibly and in moderationModeration = up to 1 drink per day for women =up to 2 drinks per day for men.Alcoholic beverages should not be consumed by some individualsAlcoholic beverages should be avoided by individuals engaging in activities that require attention, skill, or coordination
22 Food Safety To avoid microbial foodborne illness: Clean hands, food contact surfaces, and fruits and vegetables.Meat and poultry should not be washed or rinsed.Separate foodsCook foods to safe temperatureChill perishable foods promptly.Older Adults:Do not eat or drink unpasteurized milk; raw eggs; raw or undercooked meat and poultry, fish, or shellfish; unpasteurized juices; and raw sprouts.Reheat deli meats and frankfurters until steaming hot.
23 The Challenge From the Science…to Policy…to the Public….to “Me” Naturally, one of the biggest challenges is taking the science and Dietary Guidelines recommendations and making them applicable to individuals.In previous years we had one document – the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which had to serve multiple audiences. This go around, we wanted to make certain that we released the Dietary Guidelines for Americans with information for consumers, written specifically with them in mind.From the Science…to Policy…to the Public….to “Me”
24 Thank you for your time, and all you do to keep Americans informed.