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Development and Health An Introduction to Development.

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Presentation on theme: "Development and Health An Introduction to Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 Development and Health An Introduction to Development

2 What is Development? Development is a process of change over time. Closely linked with economic growth in the past. Now viewed as a combination of economic and social growth (standard of living, diet, access to education and health care).

3 Sustainable Development Sustainable growth – using resources responsibility, without exploitation ensuring they are not exhausted to allow future generations to use them.

4 Lessons Titles 1. Indictors of development 2. Composite indicators of development 3. Contrasts in development (uneven development between countries) 4. Successful development (Asian Tiger Economy/ Singapore 5. Uneven development within a country

5 Indicators of development LO – To be able to describe and explain the statistics used to measure development

6 Indicators of Development (pg 162) Gross National Product (GNP) The total value of economic output divided by the population.

7 Figure 4.1: Global distribution of GNP per capita

8 Question Describe the distribution of wealth around the world using GNP information. (6 marks) Wealth is not evenly distributed throughout the world. In North America in countries like Canada and the USA there are high levels of GNP beyond $8500 per capita.

9 GNP – using this to measure development +easy to calculate -Figures are averages so they do not take into account inequalities between the very rich and the very poor. -Currency values can change on a daily basis

10 Good indicators to use? (page 164) Life expectancy at birth Access to safe water Adult literacy


12 Construct a table?


14 Past Paper 2008 (half model answer) Gross National Product (GNP) per capita is an economic indicator. It shows the total economic output of a country divided by the countries total population. Daily calorie intake per person is also an economic measure as this helps to show the amount of food a person is consuming. The higher this figure the more food is available in a nation which can help to show wealth. Conversely the lower the figure the poorer the nation as this could show trends that the population could be malnourished.

15 Composite indicators of development LO – To be able to explain why composite indicators are more reliable

16 Physical Quality of Life Index Combines life expectancy, literacy rates and mortality rates. Concentrates on social rather than economic development Scale used 0 (worst) 100 (best) for each factor All 3 then averaged Above 77 is considered satisfactory

17 Human Development Index Combines a range of social and economic indicators Income per capita (purchasing power) Educational attainment (adult literacy and number of years at school) Life expectancy at birth Best score is 1, poorest is 0 All 3 figures added then averaged Interesting statistic as can show male vs. female data

18 Contrasts in development table Table 4.1 page 167 CountryGNPLife expectancy % adult literacy % infant mortality Singapore2673076914 Vietnam240679038 Saudi Arabia 7074701629 Bangladesh240583377

19 Past paper question 2009

20 Contrasts in development LO – To be able to explain the factors that limit development

21 Reasons for uneven development Remoteness Natural Resources Climate Trade links Historical links Corruption Government investment War or conflict ReliefNatural disasters Tourism

22 Reason for uneven development General Reasons

23 Past paper question 2009

24 Successful development LO – To be able to describe and explain successful development within NICs

25 Page 169 NIC notes Singapore

26 Uneven development within a country LO – To be able to explain why development levels vary regionally within a country

27 Kenya

28 Brazil Photo copy diagram (page 180) How to pass guide (write notes)

29 Past paper question

30 Development and Health Bringing development and health together

31 Lessons 1. Factors influencing health 2. Malaria – Causes 3. Primary Health Care

32 Factors Influencing Health LO – To be able to explain the physical and human factors that influence health

33 Physical Factors Climate Hot wet conditions encourage the spread of infectious diseases They provide ideal breading conditions for insects that act as vectors Drought and arid conditions can effect water supplies Restricted or contaminated water can cause ill health

34 Physical Factors Water 50% of household in developing nations lack access to clean water This number is more in rural areas compared to urban Often women will travel on foot to collect water from a water source (that may be contaminated) This is time consuming and can make people weak

35 Physical Factors Sanitation Poor provision of water supplies leads to a lack of basic sanitation In developing nations, few people, even those in urban areas have access to sewage systems This can result in widespread disease Children are most at risk – 4 million die of diarrhoea each year

36 Physical Factors Mountainous areas Very remote Lack of communications Lack of access to basic health care and medical services Hence peoples health levels are generally poor.

37 Human Factors Poverty Slum living and overcrowding Lack of running water and sanitation Disease spreads rapidly in overcrowded conditions Poverty leads to poor education People can be ignorant of treatments for preventive diseases

38 Human Factors Diet Poor nutrition as people cannot afford a healthy diet Even with subsistence farming over working the land leads to soil erosion producing yields that cannot support the population Undernourished people are more susceptible to disease.

39 Malaria; Causes LO – To be able to explain the physical and human causes of malaria

40 What is Malaria? Malaria effects 350-500 million people world wide It has killed 50 million people in the last 15 years 3 million deaths a year 85% of deaths are children 1 child dies every 20 seconds

41 What does it do? Malaria weakens the immune system Lowers white blood cell count

42 Causes Malaria is transmitted by the female ANOPHOLESE mosquito


44 Physical Causes Mosquito needs the following to survive

45 Human Causes Humans make it easy for the mosquito….


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