Presentation on theme: "Development and Health An Introduction to Development."— Presentation transcript:
Development and Health An Introduction to Development
What is Development? Development is a process of change over time. Closely linked with economic growth in the past. Now viewed as a combination of economic and social growth (standard of living, diet, access to education and health care).
Sustainable Development Sustainable growth – using resources responsibility, without exploitation ensuring they are not exhausted to allow future generations to use them.
Lessons Titles 1. Indictors of development 2. Composite indicators of development 3. Contrasts in development (uneven development between countries) 4. Successful development (Asian Tiger Economy/ Singapore 5. Uneven development within a country
Indicators of development LO – To be able to describe and explain the statistics used to measure development
Indicators of Development (pg 162) Gross National Product (GNP) The total value of economic output divided by the population.
Figure 4.1: Global distribution of GNP per capita
Question Describe the distribution of wealth around the world using GNP information. (6 marks) Wealth is not evenly distributed throughout the world. In North America in countries like Canada and the USA there are high levels of GNP beyond $8500 per capita.
GNP – using this to measure development +easy to calculate -Figures are averages so they do not take into account inequalities between the very rich and the very poor. -Currency values can change on a daily basis
Good indicators to use? (page 164) Life expectancy at birth Access to safe water Adult literacy
Past Paper 2008 (half model answer) Gross National Product (GNP) per capita is an economic indicator. It shows the total economic output of a country divided by the countries total population. Daily calorie intake per person is also an economic measure as this helps to show the amount of food a person is consuming. The higher this figure the more food is available in a nation which can help to show wealth. Conversely the lower the figure the poorer the nation as this could show trends that the population could be malnourished.
Composite indicators of development LO – To be able to explain why composite indicators are more reliable
Physical Quality of Life Index Combines life expectancy, literacy rates and mortality rates. Concentrates on social rather than economic development Scale used 0 (worst) 100 (best) for each factor All 3 then averaged Above 77 is considered satisfactory
Human Development Index Combines a range of social and economic indicators Income per capita (purchasing power) Educational attainment (adult literacy and number of years at school) Life expectancy at birth Best score is 1, poorest is 0 All 3 figures added then averaged Interesting statistic as can show male vs. female data
Contrasts in development table Table 4.1 page 167 CountryGNPLife expectancy % adult literacy % infant mortality Singapore2673076914 Vietnam240679038 Saudi Arabia 7074701629 Bangladesh240583377
Development and Health Bringing development and health together
Lessons 1. Factors influencing health 2. Malaria – Causes 3. Primary Health Care
Factors Influencing Health LO – To be able to explain the physical and human factors that influence health
Physical Factors Climate Hot wet conditions encourage the spread of infectious diseases They provide ideal breading conditions for insects that act as vectors Drought and arid conditions can effect water supplies Restricted or contaminated water can cause ill health
Physical Factors Water 50% of household in developing nations lack access to clean water This number is more in rural areas compared to urban Often women will travel on foot to collect water from a water source (that may be contaminated) This is time consuming and can make people weak
Physical Factors Sanitation Poor provision of water supplies leads to a lack of basic sanitation In developing nations, few people, even those in urban areas have access to sewage systems This can result in widespread disease Children are most at risk – 4 million die of diarrhoea each year
Physical Factors Mountainous areas Very remote Lack of communications Lack of access to basic health care and medical services Hence peoples health levels are generally poor.
Human Factors Poverty Slum living and overcrowding Lack of running water and sanitation Disease spreads rapidly in overcrowded conditions Poverty leads to poor education People can be ignorant of treatments for preventive diseases
Human Factors Diet Poor nutrition as people cannot afford a healthy diet Even with subsistence farming over working the land leads to soil erosion producing yields that cannot support the population Undernourished people are more susceptible to disease.
Malaria; Causes LO – To be able to explain the physical and human causes of malaria
What is Malaria? Malaria effects 350-500 million people world wide It has killed 50 million people in the last 15 years 3 million deaths a year 85% of deaths are children 1 child dies every 20 seconds
What does it do? Malaria weakens the immune system Lowers white blood cell count
Causes Malaria is transmitted by the female ANOPHOLESE mosquito