Presentation on theme: "Development and health"— Presentation transcript:
1 Development and health What do you need to know?
2 By the end of the unit you should know the following: That development is measured by social, economic and composite methodsRecognise that differences in levels of development exist between and within countries.Understand the reasons why these differences in development exist.Understand the human and physical factors involved in the levels of health and the incidence of diseaseUnderstand one water related diseaseStrategies for improving health and the control of disease and their impact.
4 What is development?Development is any improvement in the standard of living of people within a country.
5 Dividing the worldThe world can be divided up in a number of ways. (geographically, politically, climate)In this unit we will look at the division due to development stagesThere are two categories of development:- More economically developed countries (MEDC)- Less economically developed countries (LEDC)
6 MEDCThis includes countries such as Britain, America, Japan and many moreThese countries are seen to have a better standard of living for their population.They have a developed industry base. With many industries in the tertiary and quaternary sectorsThey have a high human development index
7 LEDCThis includes countries such as brazil, Ethiopia, Bangladesh and many more.They have a relatively low standard of livingThey tend to have a underdeveloped industrial baseThey have moderate to low Human development index.Often widespread poverty in the country
8 Measuring development There is a number of ways in which to measure development.You can use:- Social indicators- Economic indicators- Combined indicators
9 What are economic indicators? These are indicators that measure the wealth and industrialization of a country
10 Economic indicators GNP/GDP per capita = Per person Gross National Product (GNP)This is the value of all goods produced, services provided in a country and services earned abroad in one year.People employed in agricultureA country where most people work in agriculture has very little industry. This means the wealth of the country is limitedGNP/GDP per capita = Per personEnergy per personThe energy used in a country divided by the number of people in that country. Countries with a higher standard of living and industries will use more energy.Gross Domestic Product (GDP)This is the value of all goods produced, services provided in a country in a year.
11 The world divided by Gross Domestic product Notice how America and Europe dominate this map, along with Japan (yes – that huge dark-green island on the right really is Japan), while Africa dwindles almost to invisibility.
12 Problems with economic indicators Wealth may not always be evenly spreadWealth does not equate to quality of lifeIndicators are an average for a countryOne indicator doesn’t give enough informationWealth needs to be taken in respect of what can be bought for that money.
13 What are social indicators? Social indicators show how a country uses its wealth to improve the lives of its people.
14 Social indicators Death rate The number of people who die for every 1000 people who live in the country.Adult literacyThe number of adults who can read in every 1000 of the populationLife expectancyThe number of years on average that people live.Calories per personThe average number of calories consumed by each person per day.Other indicators include:- Protein per person per day- Population per doctor- Infant mortality
15 The world divided by child mortality Notice how the African continent becomes inflated while the USA shrinks.
16 Problems with social indicators One indicator does not provide enough informationIndicators disguise variationsIndicators do not take in to account specific circumstances
17 Quick questionsWhy do you think that calories per person per day might be misleading?What might death rate hide to give a misleading figure?
18 Combined indicators There are two main combined indicators -Physical quality of life indicator (PQLI)- Human development index (HDI)
19 Physical quality of life indicator This is a combination of three social factors:- Life expectancy- Infant mortality- Adult literacyThis gives a number fromA PQLI of over 77 is consider good
20 Human development indicator This is a combination of social and economic factors:- Life expectancy Cost of living- Adult literacy School enrolment- GNP per capitaThis produces an index from 0 – 1A number of 0.8 or above is considered developed
22 Inequalities through out he world The world is divided in to developed and developing regions.This done my using social, economic and combined factors to measure the level of development.
23 MEDCs and LEDCs are not all equal Within MEDCs some will have greater GNP than othersWithin LEDCs infant mortality will be higher in some than others.
24 Reasons for inequalities There are a number of reasons why development is uneven throughout the world.- Trade- Population growth- Industrialisation- Political turmoil- Physical factors
25 Trade Exchanging one thing for another This can lead to a trade surplus or deficitThis can be complicated by trade barriers
26 Population growthThis can cause problems as a developing nation cannot provide jobs, houses and medical facilities for the population.This is because the economy is not strong enough to cope with this change.
27 Industrialisation A move to become an industrial society Greater capital accumulationThe role of Multi National Companies (MNC)Case study: South Korea – a newly industrialised country (NIC)
28 Political turmoilUnstable governments can lead to civil war which restricts developmentCorruption in governments means money is not directed to where it should go.Case study: Zimbabwe
29 Physical factors Every country has a different location Amount of natural resources in a country variesThe climate in every country can vary.