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Chapter 5 Groups and organizations

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1 Chapter 5 Groups and organizations
Social Groups Group Characteristics and Dynamics Formal Organizations in Global Perspective Alternative Forms of Organization Organizations in the Future

2 Social Groups A collection of two or more people who:
Interact frequently. Share a sense of belonging. Have a feeling of interdependence.

3 Types of Groups Primary and Secondary Ingroups and Outgroups
Reference Groups

4 Cooley’s Primary and Secondary Groups
Primary group - small group whose members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions. Secondary group - larger group in which members engage in impersonal relationships for a limited period of time.

5 Sumner’s Ingroups and Outgroups
Groups set boundaries between insiders and outsiders. Distinguishing between ingroups and outgroups helps us establish our identity. May encourage group cohesiveness, but may also promote classism, racism, sexism and ageism.

6 Group Size Size is one of the most important features of a group.
As size increases, communication patterns between group members change. Larger groups typically have more formalized leadership structures.

7 Group Leadership Styles
Authoritarian leaders - often criticized for fostering intergroup hostility. Democratic leaders - praised for supportive behavior and blamed for being indecisive in a crisis. Laissez-faire leaders - do not provide active leadership.

8 Research on Group Conformity
Asch - demonstrated that people will bow to social pressure in small group settings. Milgram - obedience to authority may be more common than most of us would like to believe. Pryor and McKinney - suggest a relationship between group conformity and harassment.

9 Groupthink Members of groups limit their opinions to focus on consensus. Members of a group arrive at a decision that individual members believe is unwise. 1986 challenger tragedy has been cited as an example of this process.

10 Etzioni’s Classification of Formal Organizations
Normative organizations are joined voluntarily. (political parties, religious organizations and social clubs) Coercive organizations are associations people are forced to join. (prisons) Utilitarian organizations provide rewards. (colleges and universities, the workplace)

11 Weber’s Ideal Characteristics of Bureaucracy
Division of Labor Hierarchy of Authority Rules and Regulations Qualification-Based Employment Impersonality

12 Shortcomings of Bureaucracy
Inefficiency and Rigidity Resistance to Change Perpetuation of Race, Class, and Gender Inequalities

13 Alternative Forms of Organization
“Humanizing” the bureaucracy: Greater sharing of power and responsibility. Encouragement of participants to share their ideas and try new approaches. Efforts to reduce the number of people in dead‑end jobs and to help people meet family responsibilities.

14 Organizational Structure in Japan
Lifetime employment - workers were (until recently), guaranteed permanent employment after an initial probationary period. Quality circles—small workgroups that meet regularly with managers to discuss the group’s performance and working conditions.

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