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Groups and Organizations

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Presentation on theme: "Groups and Organizations"— Presentation transcript:

1 Groups and Organizations
Chapter 5 Groups and Organizations

2 Chapter Outline Social Groups Group Characteristics and Dynamics
Formal Organizations in Global Perspective Alternative Forms of Organization Organizations in the Future

3 Social Groups A collection of two or more people who:
Interact frequently. Share a sense of belonging. Have a feeling of interdependence.

4 Aggregates and Categories
Aggregates happen to be in the same place at the same time but only interact briefly. Airline passengers, shoppers, waiting at a traffic light Categories may have never met one another but share a similar characteristic. Students, elderly, Native Americans

5 Types of Social Groups Primary group
Emotion-based interaction over extended period. Secondary group Impersonal, goal- oriented relationships for a limited time. Ingroup Group to which a person belongs and feels a sense of identity. Outgroup Group to which a person doesn’t belong and feels a sense of hostility towards. Reference Group Influences a person’s behavior and attitudes, regardless of whether they are a member.

6 Cooley’s Primary and Secondary Groups
Primary group - small group whose members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions. Secondary group - larger group in which members engage in impersonal relationships for a limited period of time.

7 Sumner’s Ingroups and Outgroups
Groups set boundaries between insiders and outsiders. Distinguishing between ingroups and outgroups helps us establish our identity. May encourage group cohesiveness, but may also promote classism, racism, sexism and ageism.

8 Group Size Dyad Group composed of two members. Triad
Group composed of three members. Formal organization Highly structured secondary group formed for the purpose of achieving specific goals

9 Small Groups Small groups have interaction patterns that do not exist in larger groups. In a dyad, participation of both members is crucial to the group’s survival. When a triad is formed, the relationship and interaction patterns change. As size increases, communication patterns change.

10 Group Leadership Styles
Authoritarian leaders - often criticized for fostering intergroup hostility. Democratic leaders - praised for supportive behavior and blamed for being indecisive in a crisis. Laissez-faire leaders - do not provide active leadership.

11 Research on Group Conformity
Asch - demonstrated that people will bow to social pressure in small group settings. Milgram - obedience to authority may be more common than most of us would like to believe. Pryor and McKinney - suggest a relationship between group conformity and harassment.

12 Groupthink Members of groups limit their opinions to focus on consensus. Members of a group arrive at a decision that individual members believe is unwise. 1986 challenger tragedy has been cited as an example of this process.

13 Types of Formal Organizations
Normative Organizations we join voluntarily to pursue a common interest or gain satisfaction or prestige. Coercive Associations people are forced to join (example: boot camps and prisons). Utilitarian Organizations we join voluntarily when they can provide us with a material reward.

14 Weber’s Ideal Characteristics of Bureaucracy
Division of Labor Hierarchy of Authority Rules and Regulations Qualification-Based Employment Impersonality

15 Shortcomings of Bureaucracy
Inefficiency and Rigidity Resistance to Change Perpetuation of Race, Class, and Gender Inequalities

16 Alternative Forms of Organization
“Humanizing” the bureaucracy: Greater sharing of power and responsibility. Encouragement of participants to share their ideas and try new approaches. Efforts to reduce the number of people in dead‑end jobs and to help people meet family responsibilities.

17 Elements of the Horizontal Model for Corporations
Work is organized around “core” processes. Hierarchy is flattened. Teams manage everything and are accountable for measurable performance goals.

18 Elements of the Horizontal Model for Corporations
Performance is measured by customer satisfaction, not profits. Team performance is rewarded. Employees have regular contact with suppliers and customers. Employees are trained in how to use information to make their own decisions.

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