2 The Southern EconomyTobacco became the South’s first successful cash crop, or crop grown primarily for market. Cash crop for Virginia and Maryland.Rice and indigo were the main cash crops of South Carolina. They needed the right climate and labor to be grown, this led to the growth of plantations.
3 The Southern EconomyTo make money they had to grow large amounts of these goods and to do so they needed the work force.Many poor, unemployed tenant farmers in England were willing to sell their labor for a chance to acquire their own land.
4 The Southern EconomyIndentured servants- American colonists paid the cost of transportation and promised to provide food, shelter, and clothing for the servants until their labor contracts expired.In exchange, the servants agreed to work for the landowners for the time specified in the contract, generally about four years.
5 The Southern EconomySouth Carolina imported enslaved Africans to cultivate rice (Cash Crop)Eliza Lucas- discovered that indigo grew well on land unsuitable for rice. Indigo soon became another important cash crop.
6 Discussion Question #1Why did Southern tobacco planters use indentured servants to work their fields?
7 Discussion Questions #1 To be profitable, planters had to grow large quantities of tobacco; cultivating tobacco was very labor intensive and required many workers.
8 Southern SocietyThe plantation system created a society with distinct social classes. Wealthy landowners were called Gentry and they controlled money and politics.Plantations functioned as self-sufficient communities. In the early 1700s, as planters switched from indentured to slave labor, the size of the plantations increased.
9 Southern Society“Backcountry” farmers were farther inland from the rivers. Backcountry or yeoman farmers worked small plots of land and practiced subsistence farming, or farming only enough crops to feed their own families.
10 Southern SocietyBy the late 1600s, the South was a sharply divided society.Top- Elite landownersBottom- backcountry farmers, tenant farmers, servants, and enslaved Africans.
11 Discussion Question #2What was the difference between the planter elite and backcountry farmers?
12 Discussion Question #2The planter elite owned large plantations and used indentured and enslaved labor to work the vast areas of land. Backcountry farmers worked small plots of land and practiced subsistence farming.
13 Bacon’s RebellionSir William Berkeley, Virginia’s governor, dominated Virginia’s society in the mid-1600s. He used the House of Burgesses to only allow property owners to vote. (Backcountry and Tenant farmers couldn’t)Backcountry farmers wanted to expand their landholdings. But the area they wanted was controlled by the Native Americans.The wealthy planters had nothing to gain so they were against it.
14 Bacon’s Rebellion Pre-Rebellion In 1675 war erupted between backcountry settlers and the Native Americans of the region. Governor Berkeley’s refusal to sanction military action against the Native Americans angered the backcountry farmers.
15 Bacon’s Rebellion Rebelli0n In 1676 backcountry farmers, under the leadership of a wealthy planter named Nathaniel Bacon, organized their own militia and attacked the Native Americans. Realizing the popularity of Bacon’s action, Governor Berkeley called on the House of Burgesses to address the situation. The assembly authorized Bacon to raise troops to attack the Native Americans, and it also restored the vote to all free men.
16 Bacon’s Rebellion Post-Rebellion Bacon was not satisfied with the reforms, and in 1676 he and several hundred armed followers returned to Jamestown, charged Berkeley with corruption, and seized power.Berkeley fled Jamestown and raised his own army. In September 1676, the two armies fought for control of Jamestown.Bacon’s Rebellion ended when Bacon became sick and died.
17 Bacon’s Rebellion Result of Rebellion Backcountry farmers need land to keep stability.Trend of slaves over indentured servants was on the rise.English government encouraged slavery (Royal African Company)
18 Discussion Question #3What situation led to Bacon’s Rebellion?
19 Discussion Questions #3 (The refusal of Governor Berkeley to use military action against the Native Americans led to the conflict. Backcountry farmers wanted government support against the Native Americans, whose land they wanted. Bacon and a group of back- country settlers organized their own militia to fight the Native Americans. Later, he seized power from the governor and battled for control of Jamestown.)
20 Slavery in the Colonies Middle Passage- by 1870, million Africans were taken from West Africa and transported to America.Steps of Slavery1619 1st Africans arrived and treated like indentured servants1638 Maryland 1st state to recognize slavery1705 Virginia puts in slave code (Draws line between slaves & free people)By the early 1700’s slavery was widespread and used to create the plantation labor.
21 Discussion Question #4Why was slavery particularly entrenched in the Southern Colonies?
22 Discussion Questions #4 (There the work of enslaved Africans was essential to the plantation economy.)