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How does DNA work? Building the Proteins that your body needs.

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Presentation on theme: "How does DNA work? Building the Proteins that your body needs."— Presentation transcript:


2 How does DNA work? Building the Proteins that your body needs

3 DNA contains it all Deoxyribonucleic acid contains the instructions for protein formation DNA is a double helix with base pairs complimenting each other. Adenine and thymine/ Guanine and Cytosine are base pairs Each strand of DNA exposes the necessary information to build two identical strands of DNA

4 DNA Replication

5 Proteins Made of amino acids There are only 20 amino acids that in varied combination make up the proteins we need. Used for growth and repair of tissue DNA contains the instructions for producing protein

6 DNA genetic information is transferred DNA can not leave the nucleus RNA is made, using DNA as a blueprint Gene expression is the use of the genetic information in DNA to make protein DNA has the code

7 Transcription and Translation Transcription is when a copy of RNA is made by using the DNA template Translation is when three different kinds of RNA work together in order to assemble amino acids into proteins

8 Transcription and Translation

9 How DNA makes RNA Inside the nucleus DNA makes single strand copies of RNA to be sent out into the cell RNA is similar to DNA except Thymine (T) is replaced with Uracil(U)

10 Transcription A portion of the helix unwinds, exposing a sequence of genetic information Enzyme RNA polymerase binds to exposed bases, moving along the strand, pairing complimentary bases to build a strand of RNA mRNA passes out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm of the cell

11 RNA Polymerase mRNA Transcription

12 Breaking the Code - mRNA  Codon is a nucleotide triplet that determines which amino acid will be used for the appropriate protein.  Every three base codon is instructions for another amino acid.  Genetic code is the correspondence between nucleotide triplets and the amino acids in proteins

13 Reading the Code Using the genetic code chart, it is possible to figure out the amino acid used for a specific protein On the left side of the chart, use the first codon The top of the chart refers to the second codon and the third is on the side, line it up and it tells you the amino acid


15 RNA makes protein mRNA binds to a site on a Ribosome Ribosomes produce protein and use mRNA has the instructions tRNA (transfer RNA) carries amino acids to the ribosomes On one end of tRNA is a 3 nucleotide sequence called a anticodon Anticodons are complementary to mRNA codons

16 Regulating Gene expression Protein production must be regulated or we have unrestricted growth Repressor proteins stop the process Inducers begin the process Proteins are even needed for this.

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