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Training and Developing Employees

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1 Training and Developing Employees
8 Training and Developing Employees Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education

2 Learning Objectives Summarize the purpose and process of employee orientation. List and briefly explain each of the steps in the training process. Describe and illustrate how you would identify training requirements. Discuss how you would motivate trainees. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education

3 Learning Objectives Explain how to use training techniques.
List and briefly discuss four management development programs. List and briefly discuss the importance of leading organizational change. Answer the question, “What is organizational development and how does it differ from traditional approaches to organizational change?” Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education

4 Summarize the purpose and process of employee orientation
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education

5 The Purposes of Employee Orientation/Onboarding
Employee orientation (or “onboarding”) provides new employees with the information they need to function. Ideally, though, it should also help new employees start getting emotionally attached to the firm. The length of orientation varies, but it usually includes time with HR to review benefits, vacations, and other policies. It also includes time with the supervisor to learn the organization and culture of the department. The purposes for an effective orientation program is to: Make the new employee feel welcome and at home and part of the team. Make sure the new employee has the basic information to function effectively, such as access, personnel policies and the like. Help the new employee understand the organization in a broad sense. Start the process of a person becoming socialized into the firm’s culture, values, and ways of doing things. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education

6 The Orientation Process
Company Organization and Operations Safety Measures and Regulations Facilities Tour Employee Orientation Employee Benefit Information Personnel Policies Daily Routine

7 and each of its four steps
Briefly explain the Training process and each of its four steps Next, we will discuss the five steps of a commonly used instructional design technique known as ADDIE. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education

8 Overview of the Training Process
Aligning strategy and training Directly after orientation, training should begin. Training means giving new or current employees the skills that they need to perform their jobs. The task is to identify the employee behaviors the firm will require to execute its strategic goals, and strategy, that assume what competencies employees will need. Training and performance - Performance Management Taking an integrated, goal-oriented approach to assigning, training, assessing, and rewarding employees’ performance. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education

9 The ADIE Four-Step Training Process
The Four-Step Training and Development Process 1 3 2 Needs Analysis 4 Instructional Design Implementation Evaluation

10 Analyzing Training Needs
Task Analysis: Assessing New Employees’ Training Needs Performance Analysis: Assessing Current Employees’ Training Needs Training Needs Analysis

11 Conducting the Training Needs Analysis
Strategic needs - Strategic training needs analysis Strategic goals usually mean the firm will have to fill new jobs. Strategic training needs analysis focuses on identifying the employer’s strategic/longer term training needs that employees will need to fill new future jobs and/or its current training needs. Many employers use competency models to help compile and summarize a job’s training needs. The model’s aim is to identify and compile the crucial competencies for executing the job well.

12 Task Analysis Particularly with lower-level workers, it’s common to hire inexperienced personnel and train them. Your aim here is to give these new employees the skills and knowledge they need to do the job. Task analysis is a detailed study of the job to determine what specific skills the job requires. For task analysis, job descriptions and job specifications are essential. Some supervisors may create performance standards, try out the job themselves, or keep a detailed record of the tasks. It includes : Detailed study Job descriptions Job specifications Performance standard Performing the job Task analysis record

13 Performance Analysis: Current Employees’ Training Needs
Performance analysis is the process of verifying that there is a performance deficiency and determining whether the employer should correct such deficiencies. This can be done by comparing the person’s actual performance to what it should be. Most training is focused on improving current performance. Analyzing current employee needs is more complex than the new employee needs. You also must decide whether training is the solution to the underlying problem that the biggest issue is to figure out what is causing reduced performance. Can the person perform or are they unwilling to do so? If the problem is employee motivation then training is unlikely to fix this. There are several methods that can be used to identify an employee’s training needs, including supervisor, peer, self, and 360-degree performance reviews. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education

14 Designing the Training Program
Design means planning the overall training program including training objectives, delivery methods, and program evaluation. Sub-steps include setting performance objectives, creating a detailed training outline, choosing a program delivery method, and verifying the overall program design with management . Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education

15 Designing the Training Program
Setting learning objectives & Creating a motivational learning environment Requests for training often start with line managers presenting concerns, such as “we’re getting too many complaints from call center callers.” The learning objectives you choose should address the performance deficiencies that you identified with needs analysis. Start the training not with a lecture but by making the material meaningful. Describe or frame the problem and ask for ideas about what could be done to address the issue. Develop interest in the topics to be covered. Learning requires both ability and motivation, and the training program’s learning environment should take both into account. In terms of ability, the learner–trainee needs the required reading, writing, and mathematics skills. In addition to the required educational level, intelligence, and knowledge base. As every student knows, the learner also must be motivated to learn the material. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education

16 Motivating Trainees Making the Learning Meaningful
Importance Familiar examples Organize logically Familiar terms Perceived need At the start of training, show why it’s important, and provide an overview. Use a variety of familiar examples. Organize the information so you can present it logically, and in meaningful units. Use terms and concepts that are already familiar to trainees. Use as many visual aids as possible. Finally, create a perceived training need in trainees’ minds. Making skills transfer obvious & easy Similarity Practice Label Attention Pace Maximize the similarity between the training situation and the work situation. Provide adequate practice. Label or identify each step in the process. Direct the trainees’ attention to important aspects of the job. Provide information about what could happen. Adjust your pace and rhythm to connect with the group. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education

17 Learning Reinforce correct responses Schedule Follow-up assignments
Cont. Reinforce correct responses Trainees learn best when the trainers immediately reinforce correct responses, perhaps with a quick “well done”. Schedule Set the schedule and start and end on time. Follow-up assignments Transfer of training to the job During training, provide trainees with training experiences and conditions (surroundings, equipment) that resemble the actual work environment. After training, reinforce what trainees learned, for example, by appraising and rewarding employees for using new skills. Developing the program involves actually creating and preparing training materials and the content of the course, and verify the whole program. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education

18 Turning to implementing the
Explain how to use training techniques Turning to implementing the training program Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education

19 Implementing Training Programs
On the job, Off the job , Computerized & Web – based techniques On-the-job training (OJT) : means having a person learn a job by actually doing it. The most familiar on-the-job training is the coaching or understudy method. Here, an experienced worker or the trainee’s supervisor trains the employee. This may involve acquiring skills by observing the supervisor, or having the supervisor show the new employee the ropes. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education

20 On-the-job training – includes :
Cont. On-the-job training – includes : The coaching/understudy approach occurs when a trainee works directly with a senior manager or with the person he/she is to replace, and the latter is responsible for coaching the trainee. Special assignments - similarly give lower-level executives first-hand experience in working. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education

21 Steps to Help Ensure OJT Success
On-the-Job Training Cont. Steps to Help Ensure OJT Success 1 Prepare the Learner- by putting the learner at ease and explaining why he or she is being taught. 2 Present the Operation- Explain quantity and quality requirements and go through the job at a normal pace 3 Do a Tryout- and have the learner go through the job several times at a reduced, then normal, pace. 4 Follow Up- and designate to whom the learner should go for help. Gradually decrease supervision.

22 Off the job types of Learning
Lectures- Lecturing is a quick and simple way to present knowledge to large groups of trainees, as when the sales force needs to learn a new product’s features. Case Study Method - presents a trainee with a written description of an organizational problem. Role playing - is aimed at creating a realistic situation and then having the trainees assume the parts (roles) of specific persons in that situation.

23 Other Types of Learning
Informal learning Surveys estimate that as much as 80% of what employees learn on the job they learn through informal means, including performing their jobs on a daily basis with their colleagues. Other types of informal training occurs between people in the lunch or break room. Apprenticeship Training A structured process by which people become skilled workers through a combination of classroom instruction and on-the-job training. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education

24 Computerized & Web-based Learning Types
Videoconferencing- is popular for training geographically dispersed employees. Computer and Internet -based training (CBT)- refers to training methods that use interactive computer-based systems and / or online courses to increase knowledge or skills. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education

25 Evaluating The Training Effort
Designing the study- How to design the evaluation study; How can we be sure that the training caused the results? Controlled experimentation - may use a pre-test, post-test control group design to measure change. Everyone receives the pre- and post-tests but the control group does not receive training. Measurement Reactions to the program Learning- what (if anything) was learned Behavior- to what extent on-the-job behavior or results change With today’s emphasis on measuring results, it is crucial that the manager evaluate the training program. There are several things you can measure: reactions,, and. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education

26 List and briefly discuss management development programs
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education

27 Implementing Management Development Programs
Strategy and development Management development is any attempt to improve managerial performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing skills. The management development process consists of (1) assessing the company’s strategic needs (2) appraising managers’ current performance, then (3) developing the managers. Usually use similar learning techniques as training process Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education

28 List and briefly discuss the importance of leading
organizational change Managing change is important in today’s challenging environment.Professor Edward Lawler says that as more employers face rapid competitive change,“focusing on strategy, organizational development, and organizational change is a highpayoff activity for the HR organization.” Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education

29 Managing Organizational Change
What to change : Structure.. Culture.. people & Technology Perhaps the hardest part of leading a change is knowing what to change and overcoming resistance to it. However, Professor George Wynn claims, “People don’t resist change; they resist being changed.” OD can help in the management of the entire change process. Strategy and technology are two of many changes that could be made. Of course, strategic, cultural, structural, and technological changes, no matter how logical, will fail without employees’ active support. P Unfreezing means reducing the forces that are striving to maintain the status quo. Moving means developing new behaviors, values, and attitudes. Refreezing means building in the reinforcement to make sure the organization doesn’t slide back into its former ways of doing things. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education

30 Managing Organizational Change
Cont. Lewin’s change process Unfreezing Moving Refreezing Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education

31 Leading Organizational Change
Unfreezing stage Urgency. Commitment Moving stage Coalition Vision Acceptance Gains Refreezing stage Reinforcement Monitor The Unfreezing Stage requires establishing a sense of urgency and mobilizing a commitment to change. You can mobilize commitment through joint diagnoses of problems. In the Moving Stage, you create a guiding coalition. No one can really implement major organizational change alone. Most CEOs create a guiding coalition of influential people. Develop and communicate a shared vision. It is likely your organizational renewal may require a new vision. Help employees make the change. If lack of skills, pedantic policies or the organization itself stands in the way, remove the obstacles to make way for the change. Finally, consolidate gains and produce more change. Aim for attainable short-term accomplishments to encourage ongoing achievement. For the Refreezing Stage, reinforce the new ways of doing things by using such things as a new appraisal or incentive system. Finally, the leader must monitor and assess progress. In brief, this involves comparingwhere the company is today with where it should be. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education

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