Presentation on theme: "What is Hydroelectricity? In order to produce electricity, most machines require some form of mechanical energy. Hydroelectricity is one form of mechanical."— Presentation transcript:
What is Hydroelectricity? In order to produce electricity, most machines require some form of mechanical energy. Hydroelectricity is one form of mechanical energy. “Hydro” meaning water and “electricity” pertaining to energy, produces the mechanical energy with vast amounts of falling water. It is a simple, efficient way to produce electricity needed to power many, everyday machines. Forms of Hydroelectric Generators Mechanical energy can be formed by using various hydroelectric contraptions. These contraptions consist of dams, mills, waterwheels, etc. All create the energy in very similar ways. Prices: How Hydroelectricity Works The energy extracted from the water depends on the volume and the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow, known as the head. The amount of potential energy in water depends on, and is proportional to the head. In order to produce a sufficient amount of energy you want a high head. To obtain it, the water may be run through a pipe called a penstock, which leads to a turbine. The turbine is connected to a generator, which circulates the direct current. The current is causes electricity to flow and develop out of the generator. HYDROELECTRICITY Kaley Lynch and Kim Hartford Use today: Figure 1: This photograph is the production of mechanical energy from various generators. Figure 2: This photograph is the Grand Coulee Dam. It is one of the largest hydroelectric generators in the world. Figure 3: This picture is the step by step process of hydroelectricity. This specific example is the flow of water converting to energy through a dam. The Future: Figure 4: This graph represents the popularity of hydroelectric plants worldwide. Figure 5: This is the Johnstown Flood disaster, also known as the Great Flood of 1889. It was the result of the failure of the South Fork Dam. The dam was situated 14 miles upstream of the town of Johnstown, The flood caused massive destruction to the people and the town. Figure 4: This is a diagram of a generator and turbine. It is a vital part of the hydroelectric process. 1. Intakes the water 2. Flows through the penstock 3. Creates enough flow to circulate turbine 4. Turbine forms the electricity 5. Electricity enters generator 6. Water exits turbine 7. Energy is formed and is transferred to power lines Disadvantages Advantages Minimal pollution Water is natural and always available Reduces greenhouse gases Fairly cheap to maintain Reliable Renewable Expensive Dependent on rainfall Changes in reservoir and stream water quality Flooding of land and wildlife habitat Disturbing wildlife Fish migrate Disaster Today, Hydroelectricity is the most popular renewable energy source. It is about 19% of the worlds electricity production. China is the largest hydroelectric energy producer, followed by Canada, Brazil and the U.S. In the U.S, before constructing a hydroelectric plant, a study is required. Such study could cost up to $50,000 for a 100 feet of a stream. Licenses are also required and typically cost between $150,000 and $1 million. Other than its expensive construction costs, the plant earns money from the sale of energy, the sale of capacity, and the sale of renewable energy credits. Over the years hydroelectricity has grown tremendously. It’s popularity is expected to continue and prosper. The outcome of such hydroelectric devices are far too efficient and successful to ignore this renewable energy source. In years to come, hydroelectricity will grow and help conserve energy all over the world. Figure 6: This is a detailed diagram of the production of mechanical energy through the hydroelectric device.