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SOC 3307f Interviewing.

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Presentation on theme: "SOC 3307f Interviewing."— Presentation transcript:

1 SOC 3307f Interviewing

2 Video: Getting People to Talk
Getting People to Talk: An Ethnography & Interviewing Primer Copyright © 2008 Gabriel Biller & Kristy Scovel

3 What is interviewing, why do it?
In qualitative research, interviewing, especially in-depth & open-ended, is a common and preferred method. In general, the goal of an interview is to explore the participant’s point of view, feelings, everyday experiences as interpreted by him/herself. Unlike regular conversation, interviewing has a specific purpose: to gather important and relevant information (data) to analyze.

4 Types of Interviews: Depth or Unstandardized Interviews
Also known as open-ended, informal, unstructured. No list of pre-determined questions. No set order, wording can change. Interviewee can ask questions, clarification. No assumption that researcher knows what exact information needed; questions are formulated during process of interview, adapting to what is said. Very flexible, allows for interviewee to guide, direct interview.

5 Depth (cont.) Goal is to seek understanding and interpretation.
Use of a conversational style – your primary role is that of an active listener. Record what is said and record your feelings about what you learned throughout the interview.

6 Feminist Interviewing
Similar to depth interviews but grounded in feminist philosophical principles Are open, long-lasting, intimate. Research participants not merely data providers. Goal is to build trust Self-disclosure is often used

7 Feminist (cont.) The deeper interactions give access to women’s ideas and feelings in participant’s own words. Opportunity to devolve control. Can be self-revealing for both participants and build consciousness raising. Encourages women to listen carefully to each other. Is interviewee-guided.

8 Semistandardized interviews
Also known as semistructured. Some structure but questions can be reordered during interview and/or wording changed. Can add, delete questions, ask for elaboration, clarification. Use of probes is common. This type of interview usually has a set of pre-established themes, guidelines, set of questions, but researcher not strictly bound to it. Each interview different so must adapt depending on situation, but have in front of you something to go on to guide you and focus you.

9 Standardized Interviews
Also called structured, formal interviews. Very formally structured. No deviation from established order allowed. Exact wordings to be followed. Can’t ask for any clarification, elaboration. Interviewee can’t ask any questions. Can’t add questions. Assumption that researcher knows the topic well, knows what information needed and there is shared meanings about topic, event, concepts.

10 Interview Schedule If using standardized method, then you must have formulated ahead of time a list of all questions to ask in exact wording and order of questions. Semistandardized: prepare a list of questions, probes and themes that you anticipate to focus on. Does not have to be as definite and specific. Unstandardized – may have list of themes, but interviewee guides interview A schedule allows you to think ahead of time carefully about the topic, to know what is that you want to get from interview.

11 Developing Schedule Time consuming, so prepare well ahead of time!
Have a clear idea of information you might need. Even when doing unstandardized, you must have some themes to guide you: “what is about this person, and her experience with relation to the research that I need to know more about?” Need demographic questions. A list of questions that relate very directly to topic. Some questions that loosely relate. Some questions worded slightly differently. Throw-away questions and probes.

12 Different roles of the interviewer
Interviews are not typical conversations and you have a role to adopt Equal relationships are not totally possible. Must establish good rapport and trust. Roles: Actor Recite scripted lines (interview questions), remain nonjudgmental Director Perform lines and assess the performance Choreographer Control the interview process

13 Researcher as research instrument
Qualitative interviews require considerable skill on the part of the interviewer. The interviewer needs to notice how directive he or she is being Whether leading questions are being asked whether cues are picked up or ignored Whether interviewees are given enough time to explain what they mean

14 Whyte’s Directiveness Scale
1. Making encouraging noises 2. Reflecting on remarks made by the informant 3. Probing on the last remark by the informant 4. Probing an idea preceding the last remark by the informant 5. Probing an idea expressed earlier in the interview 6. Introducing a new topic (1=least directive, 6=most directive)

15 Maintaining control of the interview
Know what it is you want to find out Ask the right questions to get the information you need Give appropriate verbal and non-verbal feedback Good feedback vs. bad feedback Avoiding bias

16 Repertoire Techniques
Uncomfortable Silence Create a long silent pause after a question Echoing “that happened to me too, “ or “I know what you mean” Letting People Talk Avoid unintentional interruptions Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010

17 Questions to avoid: Affectively worded ones: avoid inducing negative emotional response. Make questions as neutral as possible. Avoid asking “why?” directly. Double-barrelled questions: only one issue or topic per question. Overly complex questions. Try to speak at same level, be clear, know the cultural background of the person to ensure you don’t offend Do some prior study of the group, be culturally sensitive and respectful of traditions and culture

18 Using a Dramaturgical Approach (Berg, 2009)
Building Rapport Establish common ground Appearance and demeanor Social Interpretations Nonverbal channels: body gestures, signs, phonemic sounds Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010

19 Berg’s Ten Commandments
Never begin an interview cold Remember your purpose Present a natural front Demonstrate aware hearing Think about appearance Interview in a comfortable place Don’t be satisfied with monosyllabic answers Be respectful Practice, practice, and practice some more Be cordial and appreciative Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010

20 Interview Assignment for Oct. 3
This is a “mostly in-class” group project involving a comparison of three types of interviews. It is worth 10%. In groups of 3, prepare a standardized interview and a semi-standardized interview schedule and prepare a list of themes for a depth interview. Topics will be assigned by me in a random draw. Give each group member one of the schedules or list of themes and choose another group to interview. Record the answers and your reflections in detail. With your original group, compare the responses you received. Discuss the differences, similarities, and quality and quantity of information that was gathered. Submit your joint findings/reflections on the 3 interviews Oct. 10.

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