Presentation on theme: "1 MTN-003 Training General Interviewing Techniques Some specific tips for administering the Screening interviewer-administered CRFs SSP Section 14."— Presentation transcript:
1 MTN-003 Training General Interviewing Techniques Some specific tips for administering the Screening interviewer-administered CRFs SSP Section 14
2 MTN-003 Interviewer-administered Screening CRFs Form:Completed at: Screening Part 1 EligibilityScreening Part 1 DemographicsScreening Part 1 Screening Part 2/Enrollment Behavioral Eligibility Screening Part 2, Enrollment Visit
3 Tasks to complete before the interview Basic interviewing skills Minimizing bias Considerations during the interview Reviewing the CRF at the end of the interview Overview of Presentation
4 Familiarize yourself with the interviewer-administered forms –Read through each question –Read through form instructions –Learn wording, definitions, skip patterns Review p. 1-9 of Question by Question (QxQ) Guide (End of SSP Section 14) Review interviewing probes (SSP Section 14.5) Prior to study start, complete enough role-play interviews (at least 2) among site staff until interviewers feel comfortable administering forms Before the interview…
5 Create privacy Pace the interview Let the participant know she can tell you if the interview is going too fast or too slow Get comfortable asking personal and sensitive questions If you are comfortable the participant will be too Provide encouragement Such as “we’re making good progress with the interview”; “you’re giving this a good effort” Assure confidentiality Remind participant of the confidential nature of the interview “There are no right or wrong answers” Basic Interviewing Skills
6 Be attentive and respectful during the interview Monitor participant cues (verbal and non-verbal) Be careful when responding to a participant when: she has a negative reaction to a question (s) she asks questions she requests information she shares information requiring follow-up, such as counseling or referrals Basic Interviewing Skills
7 For negative reactions “I know sometimes these questions can seem personal.” “If you are very uncomfortable you do not have to answer a question.” For general questions “That’s a great question. Let me try and answer it at the end of this interview.” For requests for information “I would be happy to give you a handout about that topic after the interview has been completed.” When participant shares information that requires follow-up “It sounds like you have some important concerns. I’d like to address them after the interview is over. Basic Interviewing Skills
8 Listening is key. Providing brief, straightforward answers is OK. However … As a general rule, interviewers should not offer feedback during the interview. Do not agree with, disagree with, or correct statements made by participants. Defer general questions, information requests, and referrals until after completion of the interview. Why is this important? Basic Interviewing Skills
9 The interviewer should: Conduct interviews with a non-judgmental approach. Avoid injecting his/her personality into the interview Not deviate from asking the questions the same way for every participant Limit his/her influence on participant responses Minimizing Bias
10 This will help to avoid “socially desirable reporting” collecting inaccurate data missing data possibly enrolling an ineligible participant For these reasons it is important that risk- reduction counseling occurs after the interview is done by a different staff member than the one administering the form Minimizing Bias
11 Introduce yourself Make the participant feel comfortable Don’t read CRF titles or question numbers Vary tone of voice to avoid sounding automated Emphasize bolded words to convey meaning Read all introductory statements Read the questions in the order in which they appear on the assessment Read each item word-for-word to all participants in all interviews When clarification is needed, repeat the item and/or response categories or ask the participant to give her best answer Avoid re-phrasing an item During the interview …
12 Use probing techniques (SSP Section 14.5) Probing is a technique used to help participants: remember an answer clarify a response decide between two similar, but different answers report something more precisely During the interview …
13 Effective probing should not: bias a participant’s responses judge a participant’s responses Therefore, all probes must be neutral. Interviewing Probes (SSP Section 14.5)
14 Interviewing Probes cont. Repeat Probe The repeat probe is used by repeating the item or response categories (if the response categories are a part of the question). Let me repeat the question... Echo Probe The echo probe is usually used by repeating back to the participant exactly what she says to you. So what you are saying is...
15 Interviewing Probes cont. Silent Probe The silent probe is used by pausing briefly after a participant gives what seems to be an uncertain answer. Non-verbal Probe The non-verbal probe is used by giving hand or facial gestures that may help the participant with a response. If I am quiet I can give her extra time to think about her response.
16 Interviewing Probes cont. Specification Probe The specification probe is used by asking the participant to give a more precise answer. Can you be more specific? Historical Probe The historical probe is used by asking whether the event in question occurred anytime around major holidays or personal events. This helps with recall of dates (e.g., when capturing medical history and medication use) Let’s look at a calendar.
17 Watch for skip patterns - It is extremely important for the interviewers to be very familiar with these forms before conducting his/her first interview. During the interview …
18 When possible, clarify inconsistent responses during the interview - Each interviewer should be familiar with responses requiring consistency before conducting his/her first interview. During the interview …
19 Use appropriate visual aid when prompted During the interview …
20 Make sure participant understands time frame in question During the interview …
21 Pay attention to notes re: participant’s study eligibility During the interview …
22 If a participant gives a response during an eligibility assessment that indicates she is not eligible for the study, what should the interviewer do? During the interview …
23 At the end of the interview … Review completed questionnaires while participant is still with the interviewer. This way, errors and inconsistencies can be addressed with the participant before she leaves. Each questionnaire is a source document – responses cannot be added or clarified once the participant has left the interview
24 It is important that all interviews be standardized within and across study visits and study sites!