Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 7 Creating Qualitative Data MANAGEMENT RESEARCH Third Edition, 2008 Prof. M. Easterby-Smith, Prof. R. Thorpe, Prof. Paul R. Jackson."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 7 Creating Qualitative Data MANAGEMENT RESEARCH Third Edition, 2008 Prof. M. Easterby-Smith, Prof. R. Thorpe, Prof. Paul R. Jackson
Learning Objectives To understand a range of different methods of data collection that belong to the qualitative research tradition. To understand how these approaches of data collection offer different perspectives according to the focus of the research. To appreciate the advantages and disadvantages to the various qualitative data collection methods.
Main Methods for Qualitative Data Collection Natural Language Data Ethnographic Approaches Interactive Methods
Collecting Natural Language Data Interviews: How much structure? Highly Structured Market Research Interview Semi-Structured Guided Open Interview Unstructured Ethnography In-depth Interviews: In-depth Knowledge of an Issue Helps to understand constructs of respondents Helps to understand the respondent’s ‘world’ Helps if the topic is sensitive, difficult or confidential
Interviewing Skills A qualitative researcher should always aim to: listen carefully to the respondent filter out important points made by the respondent remain neutral and ignore one’s own opinion be sensitive to non-verbal data avoid bias or imposing the researcher’s own frame of reference (by asking ‘leading’ questions)
Interview Probes & Techniques The basic probe: repeats the initial question – is useful when the interviewee seems to be wandering off the point The explanatory probe: builds onto incomplete or vague statements. Example: ‘what did you mean by that?’, ‘What makes you say that?’ The focused probe: is used to obtain specific information. Example: ‘What sort of...?’ The silent probe: is useful for when the respondent is either reluctant or very slow to answer the question posed. Simply pause and let the respondent break the silence
Interview Probes & Techniques (cont.) Drawing out: can be used when the interviewee has halted, or dried up. Repeat the last few words she said, and then look expectantly or say, ‘tell me more about that’, ‘what happened then?’ Giving ideas or suggestions: offers the interviewee an idea to think about – ‘have you thought about...?’, ‘have you tried...?’, ‘did you know that...?’, ‘perhaps you should ask Y...’ Mirroring or reflecting: summariszes what the respondent has just said. Example: ‘what you seem to be saying/feeling is...’.
General Interview Issues Obtaining Trust Social Interaction Using the Appropriate Language Getting Access The Location of the Interview Recording Interviews Critical Incident Technique
Other Methods to Collect Natural Language Data Group & Focus Interviews Diary Methods Video Recording
Ethnographic Methods Complete Participation: researcher as employee Research as explicit role Interrupted involvement Observation alone Semi-concealed research
Choice of Roles The purpose of the research may give an indication of which role is most appropriate. The cost of the research needs to be kept in mind. The extent to which access can be gained is important to be aware of when choosing a researcher’s role. Is the researcher comfortable with the role? is a vital question to making a choice The amount of time available can be influential in choosing a method
Understanding Through Interaction Photographs & Visual Metaphors Action Research
General Issues Relevance of the Research to the Respondents Ethics: Do not bring harm to the respondents Reflexivity
Further Reading Alvesson, M. (2003) ‘Beyond neopositivists, romantics, and localists: a reflexive approach to interviews in organisation research’. Academy of Management Review 28 (1): 13-33. Lupton, T. (1963) On the Shop Floor: Two studies of workshop organization and output. New York: Macmillan. Reason, P. and Bradbury, H. (2006) Handbook of Action Research: Participative Inquiry and Practice. London: Sage.