Weather: Refers to the current, day-to-day, short term conditions of the atmosphere.
Weather: Wind speed Wind direction Temperature Type of precipitation Amount of precipitation Cloud cover Humidity Air pressure Hours of sunshine.
Climate: Refers to the long term trends / patterns in the weather for a certain area. Different areas experience different climate. Monthly, seasonal, yearly.
Do the following phrases refer to weather or climate? Annual precipitation of 200 mm. Rain forecasted for tomorrow Tuesday. Normal July temperature averages 22˚ C Temperatures this week will range between 20 & 30˚C
Do the following phrases refer to weather or climate? It was unusually hot this summer. Grand Falls-Windsor had 15 cm of snow this past weekend. Vancouver has an annual frost free period of 233 days. Residents in Florida are preparing to take shelter from a hurricane.
Sun’s energy is unevenly distributed across the earth’s surface This heat imbalance sets the atmosphere and the oceans in motion 60% of the Sun’s heat energy is redistributed around the planet by Winds 40% by Ocean currents Places located away from large bodies of water have a continental climate (eg.. Swift Current, Saskatchewan) Places located near the ocean have a maritime climate (eg.. Peggys Cove, Nova Scotia
Understand the cause of wind and how they affect climate
A wind is a horizontal movement of air across a surface. Vertical movements are currents or updrafts and downdrafts Caused by what???? Heat versus cold!!
Unequal heating Unequal heating causes pressure differences Cold, heavy air sinks = high pressure Warm, expanding air rises = low pressure Winds blow from high to low
The statement is fact. Think: 1. Air inside a balloon 2. Exhaling 3. Air powered pellet gun It is simply fact. High and low pressures in the earth’s atmosphere are responsible for wind
Wind: is a horizontal movement of air across a surface. It results from air masses of different temperatures and humidity lying next to each other. The resulting pressure variation causes “wind” to blow from high pressure areas to low pressure areas. Prevailing Wind: Is regular, predictable, normal wind direction for a given area or region. Caused by global convection cells. Named after the direction from which it comes
Large volumes of air with similar temperature and moisture Continental Arctic – comes from Northern Canada and is COLD and Dry Maritime Tropical – comes from the Caribbean and is WARM and WET Maritime Polar – comes from Atlantic Ocean and is COOL and WET They affect climate in Atlantic Canada because they bring to the characteristics of that particular air mass (See handout # 62 and Map Page 38) North American Air Masses
Leading edge of an air mass Fronts, like air masses, bring the characteristics of the air mass that drives them and also sudden changes in weather Atlantic Canada is mainly influenced by cold/dry air masses from north that meet warm/moist air masses from south The point where the two air masses meet is called the front Cold and Warm Fronts
During summer, Canada is affected by the warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico. This air mass pushes north giving us warm summer temperatures and precipitation. During winter, air masses from Canada’s north dominate. The cold, dry air pushes south from the arctic
River of air moving from west to east at speeds between 300km\h – 400km\h at altitude between 8000 and 15000 feet. ( See Figure 4.11 and 4.14 page 54- 55. May move further north in summer bringing hot and humid conditions from the Gulf to Canada’s interior May move further south in winter bringing bringing cold, dry air into Canada’s interior.