2 A useful acronym to help remember these factors is : LOWER Near Water There are 6 factors that affect climate. They are:LatitudeOcean CurrentsWinds and Air MassesElevationReliefNear to WaterA useful acronym to help remember these factors is : LOWER Near Water
3 Latitude and ClimateLatitude: gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the equator-measured in degreesLines of Latitude: horizontal lines running east to west on a map –increase in number as you move away from equatorThe hottest places on Earth are found at the equatorAs you move AWAY from the equator (either N or S) the average temperature decreases, but the temperature range increases.
4 Why? But, The amount of energy hitting any spot on the earth is equal Because the earth is curved, at certain points this energy is spread out over larger distances
5 Therefore,Temperature decreases as you move north or south of the equator, because due to the curvature of the Earth, less light from the sun is hitting per square metre.
6 Ocean Currents and Climate An ocean current is continuous, directed movement of ocean water.Temperature of the current + surrounding water = overall current temperatureCurrent temperature affects air temperature passing over itWest coast:North Pacific current = warm warmer air Warm BC climateLabrador current meets Gulf Newfoundland = FOG
7 Therefore,Ocean currents affect climate because they influence the temperature of the air coming off the water.
8 Winds and ClimateUsing your textbook, pg 148, define the following terms:Air mass:Wind:Prevailing wind:Polar front:Jet stream:Large volume of air that takes on climatic conditions .Movement of air from high pressure to low pressure areas.Well-established patterns of windsBoundary between dry, polar air and warm, wet tropical airWest to east movement of air high above polar frontBecause air masses take on their climatic conditions,Ocean air masses = lots of moisture + warm/coolLand air masses = very dry + warm/cool
9 Winds affects Climate? Air moves, High Pressure Low Pressure Creates patterns calledPREVAILING WINDSIn Canada, blow West East(WESTERLIES)Move air masses(affects and changes weather)
10 This can have MAJOR implications on weather JET STREAMThe east to west movement of the jet stream controls the location of the polar front.N of jet stream =COLDS of jet stream =WARMThis can have MAJOR implications on weatherIf the jet stream shifts, there can be large shifts in temperature
12 Therefore,Winds affect climate by moving air masses that mimic climatic conditions, and alter the position of the jet stream
13 Elevation and Climate Increase in elevation = decrease in temperature Remember relief precipitation,As air rises up, it expands and coolsWill continue till the forming cloud becomes saturatedLeads to increased water dropletsResults in precipitationRain, snow, hail
18 Therefore,The presence of mountains will cause cooler and wetter climates on windward sides and drier and warmer climates on leeward sides.
19 Near Water and Climate Continental Climate (Not close to body of water)Interior locationsLarge temp range (hot =summer, cold =winter)Low amounts of precipitationMaritime Climate(Close to large water body)Coastal locationsRelatively small temp rangeA lot of precipitation compared to left
20 Therefore,The temperature range and amount of precipitation can be influenced by the proximity to a large body of water
21 What Climate Factor(s) is Affecting the following regions in Canada?