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What Factors Affect the Climate in Canada

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Presentation on theme: "What Factors Affect the Climate in Canada"— Presentation transcript:

1 What Factors Affect the Climate in Canada

2 A useful acronym to help remember these factors is : LOWER Near Water
There are 6 factors that affect climate. They are: Latitude Ocean Currents Winds and Air Masses Elevation Relief Near to Water A useful acronym to help remember these factors is : LOWER Near Water

3 Latitude and Climate Latitude: gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the equator -measured in degrees Lines of Latitude: horizontal lines running east to west on a map –increase in number as you move away from equator The hottest places on Earth are found at the equator As you move AWAY from the equator (either N or S) the average temperature decreases, but the temperature range increases.

4 Why? But, The amount of energy hitting any spot on the earth is equal
Because the earth is curved, at certain points this energy is spread out over larger distances

5 Therefore, Temperature decreases as you move north or south of the equator, because due to the curvature of the Earth, less light from the sun is hitting per square metre.

6 Ocean Currents and Climate
An ocean current is continuous, directed movement of ocean water. Temperature of the current + surrounding water = overall current temperature Current temperature affects air temperature passing over it West coast: North Pacific current = warm  warmer air  Warm BC climate Labrador current meets Gulf Newfoundland = FOG

7 Therefore, Ocean currents affect climate because they influence the temperature of the air coming off the water.

8 Winds and Climate Using your textbook, pg 148, define the following terms: Air mass: Wind: Prevailing wind: Polar front: Jet stream: Large volume of air that takes on climatic conditions . Movement of air from high pressure to low pressure areas. Well-established patterns of winds Boundary between dry, polar air and warm, wet tropical air West to east movement of air high above polar front Because air masses take on their climatic conditions, Ocean air masses = lots of moisture + warm/cool Land air masses = very dry + warm/cool

9 Winds affects Climate? Air moves, High Pressure Low Pressure
Creates patterns called PREVAILING WINDS In Canada, blow West East (WESTERLIES) Move air masses (affects and changes weather)

10 This can have MAJOR implications on weather
JET STREAM The east to west movement of the jet stream controls the location of the polar front. N of jet stream = COLD S of jet stream = WARM This can have MAJOR implications on weather If the jet stream shifts, there can be large shifts in temperature


12 Therefore, Winds affect climate by moving air masses that mimic climatic conditions, and alter the position of the jet stream

13 Elevation and Climate Increase in elevation = decrease in temperature
Remember relief precipitation, As air rises up, it expands and cools Will continue till the forming cloud becomes saturated Leads to increased water droplets Results in precipitation Rain, snow, hail

14 Mount Kilimanjaro in Kenya

15 Therefore, Increased elevation causes temperature decreases and precipitation increases

16 Relief and Climate Mountain barriers create relief precipitation
Refer to previous day’s lesson on precipitation to clear up any problems


18 Therefore, The presence of mountains will cause cooler and wetter climates on windward sides and drier and warmer climates on leeward sides.

19 Near Water and Climate Continental Climate
(Not close to body of water) Interior locations Large temp range (hot =summer, cold =winter) Low amounts of precipitation Maritime Climate (Close to large water body) Coastal locations Relatively small temp range A lot of precipitation compared to left

20 Therefore, The temperature range and amount of precipitation can be influenced by the proximity to a large body of water

21 What Climate Factor(s) is Affecting the following regions in Canada?

22 Cold temperatures in Artic

23 Dry area in B.C. interior

24 Fog in Newfoundland

25 Snow in BC mountains

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