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Ecosystems and Food Webs What are the components in an ecosystem?

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3 Ecosystems and Food Webs What are the components in an ecosystem?




7 10 MINUTES I will come around to answer AND ask questions

8 Ecology and Life Ecology and Life Ecology examines how organisms interact with their nonliving (abiotic) environment such as sunlight, temperature, moisture, and vital nutrients Ecology- study of relationships between organisms and their environment

9 Ecosphere or Biosphere – All earth's ecosystems Ecosystem – Community of different species interacting with one another and with their nonliving environment of matter and energy Community – Complex interacting network of plants, animals, and microorganisms Habitat – Place where a population or individual organism naturally lives Genetic Diversity – Populations that are dynamic groups that change in size, age distribution, density, and genetic composition as a result of changes in environmental conditions Population – Group of interacting individuals of the same species that occupy a specific area at the same time



12 Type of Nutrients Nutrient Any atom, ion, or molecule an organism needs to live grow or reproduce Ex: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen… etc Macronutrient nutrient that organisms need in large amount Ex: phosphorus, sulfur, calcium, iron … etc Micronutrient nutrient that organism need in small amount Ex: zinc, sodium, copper… etc


14 Sun Fireball of hydrogen (72%) and helium (28%) Nuclear fusion Sun has existed for 5 billion years Sun will stay for another 5-6 billion years Visible light that reaches troposphere is the ultraviolet ray which is not absorbed in ozone

15 Solar Energy 72% of solar energy warms the lands 0.023% of solar energy is captured by green plants and bacteria Powers the cycling of matter and weather system Distributes heat and fresh water

16 climch/clichgr1.htm

17 Living Organisms in Ecosystem Producers or autotrophs- makes their own food from compound obtained from environment. Ex: plant gets energy or food from sun

18 Photosynthesis Producer transmit 1- 5% of absorbed energy into chemical energy, which is stored in complex carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acid in plant tissue


20 Chemosynthesis- Bacteria can convert simple compounds from their environment into more complex nutrient compound without sunlight Ex: becomes consumed by tubeworms, clams, crabs Bacteria can survive in great amount of heat

21 Consumers or Heterotrophs Obtain energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains

22 Consumers Herbivores (plant-eaters) or primary consumers Feed directly on producers Deer, goats, rabbits

23 Consumers Carnivores (meat eater) or secondary consumers Feed only on primary consumer Lion, Tiger

24 Consumers Tertiary (higher- level) consumer Feed only on other carnivores Wolf

25 Consumers Omnivores- consumers that eat both plants and animals Ex: pigs, humans, bears

26 Consumers Scavengers- feed on dead organisms Vultures, flies, crows, shark

27 Consumers Detritivores- live off detritus Detritus parts of dead organisms and wastes of living organisms. Detritus feeders- extract nutrients from partly decomposed organic matter plant debris, and animal dung.

28 Consumers Decomposers - Fungi and bacteria break down and recycle organic materials from organisms’ wastes and from dead organisms Food sources for worms and insects Biodegradable - can be broken down by decomposers

29 Range of Tolerance The range of conditions that must be maintained for a population of a species to survive Differences in genetic makeup, health, and age. Ex: trout has to live in colder water than bass

30 Limiting Factor too much or too little of any abiotic factor can limit growth of population, even if all the other factors are at optimum (favorable) range of tolerance. Ex: water, light, and soil No water in the desert limit growth of plants Ex: Farmer plants corn in phosphorus-poor soil, even if water, nitrogen are in a optimum levels, corn will stop growing, after it uses up available phosphorus.

31 Dissolved Oxygen Content Amount of oxygen gas dissolved in a given volume of water at a particular temperature and pressure. Limiting factor of aquatic ecosystem

32 What is the difference between limiting factor and range of tolerance Limiting factors are biotic or abiotic factors that limit the growth of a species, while the range of tolerance defines the set of conditions in which an organism can survive. -


34 Homework Learn about a specific ecosystem situation…. Be prepared to share out tomorrow!

35 Respiration Aerobic Respiration Uses oxygen to convert organic nutrients back into carbon dioxide and water Glucose + oxygen  Carbon dioxide + water + energy Anaerobic Respiration or Fermentation Breakdown of glucose in absence of oxygen

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