Presentation on theme: "+ Lawrence Kohlberg Stages of Moral Development By Randa Taha."— Presentation transcript:
+ Lawrence Kohlberg Stages of Moral Development By Randa Taha
+ Kohlberg Born: October 25, 1927 (Bronxville, New York) Education: University of Chicago 1948 (Bachelor), 1958 (PHD) Professor: University of Chicago (1962), Harvard University (1968) Death: January 19, 1987 Kohlberg (1958) agreed with Piaget’s (1932) theory of moral development in principle but wanted to develop his ideas further.
+ Kohlberg believed...and was able to demonstrate through studies...that people progressed in their moral reasoning (i.e., in their bases for ethical behavior) through a series of stages. He believed that there were six identifiable stages which could be more generally classified into three levels.
+ Stages of moral development Preconventional Level -Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment Orientation -Stage 2: Individualism and Exchange Conventional Level -Stage 3: Good Interpersonal Relationships -Stage 4: Maintaining Social Order Post conventional Level -Stage 5: Social Contract and Individual Rights -Stage 6: Universal Principles
+ Level 1 Description A person’s moral reasoning results from consequences of actions, such as punishment, reward, or exchange of favors, and from the physical power of authority figures. The first level of moral thinking is that generally found at the elementary school level.
+ Stage 1 & 2 (Preconventional) Obedience and Punishment Orientation: This is the stage that all young children start at. Rules are see as being fixed and absolute. Obeying the rules is important because it means avoiding punishment. Individualism and Exchange: Children begin to see that often there is room for negotiation. Decisions are made based on the principle of “what’s in it for me?”
+ Level 2 Description A persons moral reasoning involves maintaining the expectations of ones family, peer group, or nation for ones own sake regardless of the immediate consequences, and a desire to respect, maintain, support, and justify the existing social order.
+ Stage 3 & 4 (Conventional) Good Interpersonal Relationships: Child is good in order to be seen as as being a good person by others. Answers will be related to the approval of others. Maintaining the Social Order: Respect authority and obey law. Authority is internalized but not questioned and reasoning is based on the norms of the group to which the person belongs. Child is able to explain why something is wrong.
+ Level 3 Description A person reasons according to moral values and principles which are valid and applicable apart from the authority of the groups. Moral reasoning becomes more comprehensive, reflects universal principles, and is based on internalized norms.
+ Stage 5 & 6 (Post Conventional) Social Contract & Individual Rights: Child becomes aware that rules/laws might exist for the good of people. Issues are not always clear cut. For example, in Heinz's dilemma, the protection of life is more important than breaking the law against stealing. Universal Principles: Developed own set of moral guidelines which may or may not fit the law. *Kohlberg doubted few people reached this stage.
+ Keep in mind that… 1. One must progress through the stages in order, and one cannot get to a higher stage w/o passing through the stage immediately preceding it. 2. In stage development, subjects cannot comprehend moral reasoning at a stage more than one stage beyond their own 3. In stage development, movement through the stages is effected when cognitive disequilibrium is created, that is, when a persons cognitive outlook is not adequate to cope with a given moral dilemma. 4. Kohlberg believed that only about 25% of persons ever grow to level six, the majority remaining at level four.
+ Research Q’s 1. Will middle school students use reasoning influenced by authority when responding to moral dilemmas? Or, will their reasoning be distracted by the circumstances embedded in the dilemma. 2. Among students whose responses make reference to authority in their reasoning, will their reasoning reflect either stage 1 or stage 4 reasoning, or will they result in more than one stage? 3. Considering that Kohlberg's research consisted only of males, researcher is wondering whether there will be patterns of difference in the responses of the boys versus those of the girls?
+ Hypotheses Based on my reading and understanding of Kohlberg, I believe that all of the middle school children will use reasoning influenced by authority since they are concerned with avoiding getting in trouble and since their main responsibility as children is to obey authority. Researcher believes that the students who make reference to authority in their reasoning will reflect only one stage: stage 1, or stage 4, not both. i.e, their answers will be persistent. Researcher believes that there will be no pattern of difference in the responses of the boys versus those of the girls.
+ Procedure Researcher created a Dilemma similar to the concept of Kohlberg’s Dilemma to present to 12 middle school students at Holy Family School 6 boys & 6 girls (Grades: 6, 7, and 8) The Dilemma and a series of questions was presented to the students for them to answer.
+ Dilemma Considering that Kohlberg's subjects were aged between 7 and 16, they have never been put in the situations that Kohlberg talks about in his Dilemma, therefore, the researcher decided to create her own Dilemma that is much similar to Kohlberg’s, except it is something that the children can actually relate to.
John was in 6 th grade when he was caught cheating on an English quiz. On the day of the test, John’s teacher had said the usual things to the students just before the quiz. “Clear your desks of all materials except for a pencil. I will put your quiz on your desk. Please keep your eyes on your own papers. Remember, it is against the school rules to cheat. Complete the test. When you are finished, put it on my desk.” Because John’s first language was not English, he had been doing poorly in his English class. His parents had warned him that if his grades did not improve that they would take him off the soccer team. John knew that it was wrong to cheat, but he cheated on his English quiz anyway. He did not want to risk being removed from the team. In addition, he thought that his parents were being unfair and had no right to take him off the team. His parents were the ones who had decided to move to America. It was their fault that he was doing poorly in English. Also, he thought that the school rules did not apply to a kid like him. He was a special case. He needed to cheat just to keep up!
+ Questions asked 1.Do you think that John made the right choice? Why or why not? 2.Do you think that John has to follow the school rules? Why or why not? 3.Do you think the school should punish John? Why or why not? 4.Do you think that John’s parents should punish John by removing him from the soccer team? Why? Why not? 5.Is it wrong to cheat? Why or why not?
+ According to Kohlberg Researchers prediction of Students Response/Reasoning Stage 1:Avoid Punishment by following the rules. “ Its wrong/ against the rules” “You will get punished” Stage 2: Decisions are made based on the principle of “What’s in it for me”“It is not fair if….what he should have done is..” Stage 3:Being good in order to be seen as a good person by others.“Yeah he had good intentions, but still…..” Stage 4:Respect authority and obey law. Authority is internalized but not questioned. Child can explain why something is wrong. “Even though cheating to save your position on the team is understandable, it is still considered breaking the rules” Stage 5: Fair Exchange policy and Individuals seek favors. Punishments are now a risk.“His/her rights Stage 6: The ability to put oneself in other people’s shoes. People have principled conscience and will follow universal ethical principles. - Pre-conventional Level Conventional Level Post-Conventional Level Rubric
+ Sneak peak: Stage 1 Responses “No, John did the wrong thing, why? Because cheating is not right”. (Male) HE THINKS ITS NOT JUST. DO WRONG= PUNISHMENT. END OF DISCUSSION! “John did the wrong choice because cheating was wrong and he know but he still did it. (Male) HE THINKS THAT JOHN SHOULD BE PUNISHED BECAUSE JOHN KNOWS THAT CHEATING WILL LEAD YOU TO PUNISHMENT. “No, cheating is never okay”. (Female) SHE THINKS ITS NOT OKAY, NO REASON WHY, JUST BECAUSE WE WERE TAUGHT THAT CHEATING IS BAD. “NO because you should not cheat”. (Female) SHE THINKS HE SHOULD BE PUNISHED. CHEATING IS WRONG. PERIOD.
+ Sneak peak: Stage 2 Responses “Cheating is wrong and unjust. It isn’t fair to others and there are serious consequences”. (Male) ITS UNFAIR, HE COULD HAVE DONE SOMETHING ELSE BESIDES CHEAT, SO HE SHOULD BE PUNISHED. “No he was not wrong because the schools should’ve put him with a tutor so he could learn how to talk English”. (Male) RIGHT BEHAIRVOR MEANS ACTING IN ONE’S BEST INTERESTS.
+ Sneak Peak: Stage2 and 3 Responses “Yes because his first language is not English”. (Male) RIGHT BEHAIVOR MEANS ACTING IN ONES OWN INTEREST: BEHAIVOR JUSDGED ON HIS INTENTIONS “Yes so he won’t get in trouble”. (Male) RIGHT BEHAIVOR MEANS ACTING IN ONES OWN INTEREST: MINIMIZE THE PAIN, MAXIMIMZE THE PLEASE YOU GET OUT OF IT: BEHAIVOR JUDGED ON HIS INTENTIONS.
+ Sneak Peak: Stage 4 Responses “No, he should have asked his teacher for extra help. She would have taken the time to help him”. (Female) FLAWS IN JOHN ARE DUE TO FAILURE TO OBEY THE SYSTEM AND ALTERNATIVES. “No because John should have studied the night before”. (Male) RIGHT BEHAIVOR CONSISTS OF DOING ONE’S DUTY AND RESPECTING LAWS. “I think Johns actions should be evaluated. Despite English being his second language, I think John could have tried his best”. (Male)CONSCIENCE=GOOD CITIZENSHIP
+ Conclusions Based on my reading and understanding of Kohlberg, I believe that all of the middle school children will use reasoning influenced by authority since they are concerned with avoiding getting in trouble and since their main responsibility as children is to obey authority. (ONLY SOME USED REASONING INFLUENCED BY AUTHORITY.) Researcher believes that the students who make reference to authority in their reasoning will reflect only one stage: stage 1, or stage 4, not both. i.e, their answers will be persistent. (MANY OF THE BOYS RESULTED IN MORE THAN ONE STAGE THROUGHOUT THEIR ANSWERES, BUT THE GIRLS REMAINED PERSISTANT.) Researcher believes that there will be no pattern of difference in the responses of the boys versus those of the girls. (GIRLS WERE A LOT MORE PERSISTANT IN THEIR ANSWERES THAN THE BOYS)
+ TERMS Morality: Recognition of the distinction between good and evil or right and wrong. Also, the mental disposition or characteristic of behaving in a manner intended to produce morally good results. Conscience: The component of the superego that involves behaviors disapproved of by parents. Moral Development: Thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding standards of right and wrong. Internalization: The developmental change from behavior that is externally controlled to behavior that is controlled by internal standards and principals.
+ Limitations Subjects were limited Did not have enough time to interview all the students separately Difficulty reading some handwritings Limitation for presenting PowerPoint to class: Only had 13 minutes to present. Couldn’t really go into detail.
+ Kohlberg on the nature vs. nurture line NATURE NURTURE Kohlberg
+ Bibliography Colby, Anne, and Lawrence Kohlberg. The Measurement of Moral Judgment. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2010. Print. “KOHLBERG’S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT.” KOHLBERG’S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT. N.p.,n.d. Web. 20 Apr.2015.