Presentation on theme: "Moral Development Children’s moral development—an understanding of right and wrong—and ultimately a child’s behavior-is influenced by: Affective or emotional."— Presentation transcript:
1 Moral DevelopmentChildren’s moral development—an understanding of right and wrong—and ultimately a child’s behavior-is influenced by:Affective or emotional component: guilt, empathy, sense of conscienceCognitive component: how we think about right and wrongBehavioral component: how we actually behave we experience temptation to lie, cheat, or violate moral rules
2 Affective Component Probably least understood Freudian theory or guilt Temperament of childParenting stylesE.g., warmth-love, disciplinary approach
3 Behavioral ComponentCan be quite independent of both affect and understanding (e.g., Clinton)Again, is highly related to both personality and parentingAgain, the not well understoodE.g., knowledge vs behavior– teen pregnancy
4 Cognitive ComponentWhile moral behavior depends on socialization, it is also a process of cognitive developmentOne very influential theory was developed by Lawrence KohlbergKohlberg presented “moral dilemmas to children and studied how their answers changed with development
5 Story of two brothers and dad Joe was working hard to earn money to attend a summer camp. He worked all year to make the necessary $500Just before summer his Dad (a hard working, single father) decided he needed the money for a camping trip with friendsHe told Joe to give him the money. Should Joe refuse?Alex, Joe’s brother finds out that Joe really had earned $1,000 not $500. Should Alex tell the father?
6 Conscientious Objector? During a time of war, should people be allowed out of the military because they morally do not believe in killing?
7 Kohlberg Moral Dilemma In Europe, a woman was near death from cancer. One drug might save her, a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered . The druggist was charging $2,000, ten times what the drug cost him to make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could get together only about half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said no. The husband got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife. Should the husband have done that? Why?
9 Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Judgment On basis of longitudinal research, Kohlberg proposed that children develop moral reasoning through a specific series of stages that are discontinuous and hierarchical.Each stage reflects a qualitatively different, more adequate way of thinking than the one before.Kohlberg presented children with hypothetical moral dilemmas and questioned them about the issues involved.
11 Kohlberg’s Stages Level I- Preconventional Level II- Conventional Stage I: Rules obeyed for own sake and to avoid punishmentStage II: Follow rules when in doing say is in one’s own best interestLevel II- ConventionalStage 3: Good boy/girl stage. One must live up to what is expected by people close to youStage 4: Law and Order. Must uphold laws
12 Kohlberg’s Stages Level III: Post Conventional Stage 5: Being aware that people hold a variety of values.Stage 6: Understanding universal principles but also the importance of following self-chosen principles
13 1. Punishment & Obedience ConsequencesAvoid punishmentNo: Stealing is a crime; will go to jailYes: Drug is only worth $200, not $2000; probably won’t be a big crime
14 2. Naïve Hedonism Consequences Personal rewards No: Druggist needs to make back what it cost him and to make a living himselfYes: Doesn’t want to lose his wife
16 3. Good Boy/Good Girl Intentions Help, please others No: Can’t be blamed if his wife dies; he still loves her & tried to do everything he couldYes: He’s doing it because he loves his wife; he means well; it would be his fault if his wife died
17 4. Law & Order Will of society Laws, rules maintain social order No: Always wrong to steal; must abide by the law or everyone would stealYes: Wants to save his wife, but since he’s broken the law, must be willing to pay the consequences
18 5. Social Contract Human values & rights Social contracts Legality vs. MoralityNo: The ends don’t justify the means even though good would come of it; must respect the laws that people have agreed to for the sake of societyYes: Even though he would be breaking the law, in this case, it’s the only choice for saving his wife’s life
19 6. Individual Principles of Conscience Abstract principlesUniversal justice, truthTranscend laws, social contractsIndividual conscienceNo: May be many other lives that depend on this drug, not just his wife; what is right is what is right for all people; must act on what is just, not what is legally correct or emotionally preferableYes: Preserving a life is the highest moral principle; although legally wrong, it is morally right
20 Increasing Complexity Will go to jailDoesn’t want to lose his wifeHe loves his wife; can’t be blamedIt’s against the lawMust respect the agreements people have made with each otherPreserving life is the highest moral principle, above the law
21 Mean Percentage of Moral Reasoning by Age Group