Learning Objective 1 Describe the two most common models of how society determines which acts are criminal.
Learning Objective 1 The Consensus Model Assumes that a diverse group of people have similar morals and share an ideal of what is “right” and “wrong.” Crime are acts that violate this shared value system and are deemed harmful to society.
Learning Objective 1 The Conflict Model Assumes that society is so diverse that members do not share moral attitudes. The most politically powerful members of society have the most influence on criminal law and impose their value system on the community.
Learning Objective 2 Define crime and the different types of crime.
Learning Objective 2 An Integrated Definition of Crime Crime is an action that is punishable under criminal law as defined by a society. Considered an offense against society as a whole, not against the victim. Punishable by statutorily determined sanctions that bring about a loss of personal freedom.
Learning Objective 2 Criminal behavior can be grouped into six categories: 1. Violent crime 2. Property crime 3. Public order crime 4. White collar crime 5. Organized crime 6. High-tech crime
Learning Objective 2 The Criminal Justice System is composed of three components: Law enforcement agencies Courts Corrections The Criminal Justice System divides its power between the federal government and the states. This is known as federalism.
Learning Objective 3 Outline the three levels of law enforcement.
Learning Objective 3 Local law enforcement City police agencies County Sheriffs State law enforcement State police Highway patrols Other state law enforcers such as fire marshals, wildlife wardens, beverage control officers, etc.
Learning Objective 3 Federal law enforcement The Department of Homeland Security The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) The Secret Service The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) The Courts The United States has a duel court system. Comprised of one federal court and fifty different state court systems.
Learning Objective 4 List the essential elements of the corrections systems.
Learning Objective 4 The Corrections systems includes: Prisons Jails Community-based corrections (ex: probation) Parole
Learning Objective 5 Explain the difference between the formal and informal criminal justice processes.
Learning Objective 5 The formal criminal justice process Functions as an assembly-line The informal criminal justice process Based on the use of discretion
Learning Objective 6 Describe the layers of the “wedding cake” model.
Learning Objective 7 Contrast the crime control and due process models.
Discussion Questions What are the major steps in the pretrial process? Are there any potential conflicts between due process and crime control?
Video: Pre-Trial Release Officer – Fulton County Superior Court
Learning Objective 7 The crime control model Primary emphasis on the right of society to be protected from crime. The due process model Primary emphasis on the right of the individual to be protected from the power of government.
Learning Objective 8 List the major issues in criminal justice today.
Learning Objective 8 Concern about violent crime Gun sales and gun control The illegal drugs problem Challenges to law enforcement Street gangs DNA profiling Homeland security Challenges to corrections The growing prison population Economics of incarceration