Presentation on theme: "Why GECAFS Food Systems Research? Variety of definitions/approaches to “food systems” in the literature, none of which are ideally suited to GEC research."— Presentation transcript:
Why GECAFS Food Systems Research? Variety of definitions/approaches to “food systems” in the literature, none of which are ideally suited to GEC research. Lack of analytical frameworks to identify determinants of food systems most sensitive to GEC. Knowledge gaps regarding determinants most flexible for adaptation options, particularly at the regional level. Weak coordination between research, management and policy bodies to design stable food systems.
Food Systems an interconnected set of processes and activities Food Security a state or condition underpinned by food systems Key Terms
Selected Food Systems Perspectives Models of energy analysis in food systems (Giampietro et al. 1994) Globalization of agro-food systems (Goodman 1997) Food and nutrition system conceptual model (Sobal et al. 1998 ) Community food systems (Gillespie and Gillespie 2000) Ecology of food systems (Francis et al. 2003) Vulnerability of food systems (Downing 2002) Systems of provision/consumption approach (Fine 2004)
A Food System is a set of dynamic interactions between and within the human and biogeophysical environments which result in the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food. (definition based on FAO viewpoint) should involve interactions designed to provide food security. operates through supply-demand relationships. is based on a three major components each influenced by many determinants.
FOOD UTILISATION Components of Food Systems & Key Elements FOOD ACCESS Affordability Allocation Preference Nutritional Value Social Value Food Safety FOOD AVAILABILITY Production Distribution Exchange
Economic Perspective of Food Systems Ecosystem Agricultural production system Farming system Marketing system Transportation system Food supply and distribution system Food quality and safety system Regulatory system Livelihood system Food safety and preparation system Dietary system Social system Economic system Supply Demand Food System Related Systems
Determinants Perspective of Food Systems Meal frequencies Dietary patterns Customs, tastes & trends Social bonding and solidarity Skills, education, & knowledge Storage, processing & cooking techniques Waste disposal & management Bioavailability & bioefficacy Contamination and toxins Nutrient content Nutrient balance Hygiene Mobility Support services Advertising & media Customs, tastes & trends Financial & social assets Prices & household budgets Food standard regulations Employment, wages & incomes Food quality and quantity Seasonality Appearance Preparation Financial & social assets Supply chain infrastructure Labour availability & productivity Land tenure & exclusive economic zones Market policies (prices, credit & subsidies) Trade policies (border controls, int’l agreements) Distribution infrastructure (storage, transport) Natural resource base & productivity Plant and animal pests & diseases Post-harvest management Primary processing Technology Germplasm FOOD AVAILABILITY Production, Distribution & Exchange FOOD UTILISATION Nutritional Value, Social Value & Food Safety FOOD ACCESS Affordability, Allocation & Preference Red = socioeconomic determinants Green = biophysical determinants
Food Systems operate through connections between –related systems operating on one or both sides of the supply- demand relationship. –related determinants operating in one or more major components. fail to deliver food security when related systems and/or determinants, and/or the links between them, are disrupted by GEC or other stresses. can be adapted to reduce their vulnerability to GEC by –identifying which related systems/determinants are particularly sensitive to GEC –enhancing effective related systems/determinants –restoring disrupted related systems/determinants
Determinants perspective helps analyse Food Systems’ external stressors FOOD UTILISATION FOOD ACCESS FOOD AVAILABILITY HIV-AIDS Climate Change Political Unrest Floods, Droughts Currency Fluctuations Water Pollution Economic Recession War Change in Trading Agreements
Food Systems Concepts Research Questions 1.What parameters describe food systems so as to facilitate GECAFS research? 2.Within given food systems, which parameters are most sensitive to GEC? 3.Who are the agents within each major food system, what are their roles, and how do they interact?
Possible Approaches for Food System Research 1.Capture different spatial-scales of the food system, using a nested hierarchy approach. 2.Construct decision trees to map possible responses to GEC. 3.Characterize food systems by GEC issues and other variables (e.g. diet, production system, livelihoods). 4.Use the farming system approach to play out the effects of certain types of GEC and/or policy options on the food system. 5.Describe differences in policy intentions as opposed to policy realities across geographic scale or farming system. 6.Give simple narratives/story-lines.
ResourcesResponses GLOBAL (e.g. WTO; change in atmospheric composition) REGIONAL (e.g. regional price policies; ENSO signal) LOCAL (e.g. corruption; soil erosion) 1 - Nested Hierarchies of Stressors Approach GECAFS TARGET SCALE
GEC - Drought in SA GEC - Drought in SA GEC - Drought in SA * Food Aid No Food Aid Effective, Timely Distribution** No Additional Food Insecurity Not Effective, Untimely Distribution Additional Food Insecurity * e.g. World Food Programme to react ** Regional food stocks available or rapid purchases from world markets possible, distribution chain in place. 2 - Decision Trees Approach Additional Food Insecurity
3 - Related System Characterisation Approach Southern Africa Livelihood System PastoralistSemi-Sust. farmer / mixed Commercial farmer Urban unskilled worker Urban other GEC aspect Land cover change & soils degradation 33210 Climate variability & ENSO increase 33200 Climate mean values change (temp. up, rainfall down) 22200 Water avail & quality decrease 33321 Biodiversity decrease 21100 Change in Vulnerability of Livelihood System 3 = severe increase 2 = moderate increase 1 = slight increase 0 = no increase
Farming System: 1. Irrigated 2. Tree crop 3. Forest based 4. Rice-Tree crop 5. Highland perennial 6. Highland temperate mixed 7. Root crop 8. Cereal-root crop mixed 9. Maize mixed 10. Large commercial & smallholder 11. Agro-pastoral millet/sorghum 12. Pastoral 13. Sparse (arid) 14. Coastal artisanal farming Irrigated area in rainfed farming system Source: Dixon, J., Gulliver, A., and D. Gibbon (2001) Farming Systems and Poverty: Improving Farmers’ Livelihoods in a Changing World. FAO and World Bank: Rome and Washington D.C. Major Farming Systems of Southern Africa 4 - Farming Systems Approach
Food Systems Concepts GECAFS Research Questions 1.What parameters describe food systems so as to facilitate GECAFS research? 2.Within given food systems, which parameters are most sensitive to GEC? 3.Who are the agents within each major food system, what are their roles, and how do they interact?