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Presentation on theme: "NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY OF: THE EUROPEAN UNION HARI SRINIVAS ROOM: I-312 / 079-565-7406 International Environmental Policy."— Presentation transcript:

1 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY OF: THE EUROPEAN UNION HARI SRINIVAS ROOM: I-312 / 079-565-7406 International Environmental Policy

2 28 Countries of the European Union Of the 47 countries that are located in Europe, 28 form the European Union

3 23 Official Languages

4 The Treaties – Basis for democratic cooperation built on law 1952 The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) 1958 The treaties of Rome: The European Economic Community (EEC) The European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) 1987 The Single European Act 1993 Treaty on European Union – Maastricht 1999 Treaty of Amsterdam 2003 Treaty of Nice 2009 Treaty of Lisbon

5 “Europe”? European Commission (including Environment) Council of Ministers European Parliament European Court of Justice (ECJ) “EUROPEAN UNION” 28 Member Countries

6 Enlargement – from 6 to 27 countries 1952197319811986 19901995200 4 2007

7 Fall of Berlin Wall – end of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe EU economic help begins: PHARE program Criteria set for a country to join the EU: democracy and rule of law functioning market economy ability to implement EU laws Formal negotiations on enlargement begin Copenhagen summit agrees enlargement 10 new EU members: Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia 1989 1993 1998 2002 2004 2007 Bulgaria and Romania join the EU Candidates: Croatia, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Turkey © Reuders The Big Enlargement – healing the division of Europe

8 The Lisbon treaty – taking Europe into the 21st century The Treaty will make the European Union: More efficient Simpler processes, full-time president for the Council. More democratic Stronger role for the European Parliament and national parliaments, "Citizens Initiative", Charter of Fundamental Rights. More transparentClarifies who does what, greater public access to documents and meetings. More united on High Representative for Foreign Policy. the world stage More secureNew possibilities to fight climate change and terrorism, secure energy supplies.

9 Celebrating the European Union - A Half Century of Change and Progress Since the creation of the EU half a century ago, Europe has enjoyed the longest period of peace in its history. European political integration is unprecedented in history. EU enlargement has helped overcome the division of Europe – contributing to peace, prosperity, and stability across the continent. A single market and a common currency benefit companies and consumers. EU has united the citizens of Europe – while preserving Europe’s diversity. European Union United in diversity

10 The Single Market - freedom of choice Four freedoms of movement:  goods  services  people  capital © Getty Images Has led to: significant reductions in the price of many products and services, including internet access and airfares. 40% drop in price of phone calls from 2000-2006 2.8 million new jobs

11 Why should the EU get involved? Many areas of life have a regional as well as national focus The environment and social policy are two such areas International agreements on the environment, e.g. Kyoto Protocol There is greater importance because of the EU’s enlargement

12 Why should the EU get involved? If one member state’s environment becomes degraded, it affects other member states, e.g. pollution from the seas or air Identifies areas requiring EU action Gathers information and debates Reaches agreement amongst member states EU Action

13 What then? It issues a ‘Directive’ or an instruction to member states’ governments to take action The member states make law to enforce the EU’s Directive The EU reports on progress made The whole process depends on detailed negotiation and debate at EU level Members reach an agreement Some members may receive special exemptions

14 Obligations of Member States Directives converted into legally binding domestic law Practical application of these norms in individual situations Enforcement in the event that laws are broken EU “Directives”

15 Objectives of EU environmental policy Article 174(1) of EC Treaty preserving, protecting and improving the quality of the environment protecting human health prudent and rational utilisation of natural resources promoting measures at international level to deal with regional or worldwide environmental problems

16 Principles of EU environmental policy high level of protection precautionary principle principle of preventive action principle of rectification at source polluter pays principle Principles of Sustainable Development Environmental Action Programmes

17 Environmental Principles The Polluter Pays Principle Industry should pay the true costs of its methods of production is necessary Principle of prevention Action to be taken to protect the environment at an early stage The proximity principle The best place to deal with a problem is as close to that problem as possible Precautionary Principle ’It is better to be safe than sorry. ’ High Level of Protection Principle High level of protection must be integrated into all policies and action The integration principle Environmental objectives must be integrated in other policy sectors

18 Substantive environmental law General Air Water Waste Chemicals Biodiversity/Nature conservation Biotechnology Noise Industrial risk Integrated pollution control Eco-labeling and audits Climate Over 400 pieces of legislation altogether!!

19 Procedural environmental law Main instruments used: Integrated environmental permits (IPPC) Environmental impact assessment (EIA) Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) Environmental management and audit (EMAS) Freedom of access to environmental information Public participation in environmental decision- making Access to justice in environmental matters

20 From Policy to Action 1. Legislative instruments 2. Market-based instruments 3. Supporting instruments (tecnical instruments) 4. Financial support mechanisms EU Directives EU Environmental Policy

21 Market Based Instruments Environmental leavies Tradable emission permits Deposit-refund systems Enforcement incentives Financial aid Industry agreements Environmental liability Eco-label Eco-taxes Eco-audit Liability Industry Energy Transport Agriculture Tourism

22 The Future Europe’s challenges vary  Balance of economically emerging eastern Europe and advanced/developed western Europe  Europe’s role in global governance, particularly the United Nations  International immigration to Europe Environment Common political ideals Regional level problems

23 Challenges for the Future Unequal economic development Structural reforms and unemployment Weak administrative capacity High cost of environmental regulations (est. EUR 120 bn over 10 years) “Environment one of most difficult areas for accession negotiations” Challenges for the Future

24 Newcomers and New Eco Problems 10 newcomers of the EU Cyprus Estonia Hungary Latvia Lithuania Malta Poland The Czech Republic Slovakia Slovenia Reported themes of accession Air quality Waste Water quality Nature conservation Industrial pollution, risk management Chemicals GMO’s Nuclear safety Noise emission Horizontal legislation Administrative capacity 

25 Contact me … Prof. Hari Srinivas Room: I-312 Tel: 079-565-7406 Email: Class website:

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