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American Government.  The federal bureaucracy, part of the executive branch, carries out most of the day-to-day work of the Federal Government  The.

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Presentation on theme: "American Government.  The federal bureaucracy, part of the executive branch, carries out most of the day-to-day work of the Federal Government  The."— Presentation transcript:

1 American Government

2  The federal bureaucracy, part of the executive branch, carries out most of the day-to-day work of the Federal Government  The Executive branch is composed of three groups of agencies: The Executive Office of the President The 15 Cabinet Departments Many Independent Agencies

3 PRESIDENT Executive Office of the President Cabinet Departments Independent Agencies Agency/Administrati on Single administrator: Near-Cabinet status Commission Regulates business activities: Investigates or advises Authority/Corporation Board and manager; Business-like activities White House Office Department of State CIA U.S. Postal Service Securities & Exchange Commission

4 The Executive Office of the President includes both advisors and agencies that work closely with the President The Executive Office of the President is an umbrella agency, some of the units are shown here. White House Office Council of Economic Advisors Office of National Drug Control Policy Office of Management and Budget National Security Council

5 Executive DepartmentHead of the Department Description Department of StateSecretary of StateHandle U.S. & Foreign Relations Department of TreasurySecretary of the Treasury Produces U.S. Money, collects taxes & manages the public debt Department of DefenseSecretary of DefenseProvides military forces and protect U.S. Department of JusticeAttorney GeneralProsecutes those accused of violating federal laws Department of the Interior Secretary of the InteriorManages public lands, wildlife refuges, national parks, hydroelectric power plants, & Native Americans

6 Department of Agriculture Secretary of AgricultureManages national forests, inspects food, helps farmers and ranchers Department of Commerce Secretary of CommerceConducts the census, grants patents & registers trademarks, promotes trade Department of LaborSecretary of LaborEnforces federal laws on minimum wages, maximum hours, and safe working conditions Department of Health & Human Services Secretary of Health & Human Services Funds health care programs and enforces pure food and drug laws Department of Housing & Urban Development Secretary of Housing & Urban Development Operates home- financing and public housing programs

7 Department of Transportation Secretary of Transportation Deals with highways, railroads, waterways, air travel, mass transit, oil and gas pipelines Department of EnergySecretary of EnergyProduction of renewable energy, fossil fuels and nuclear energy Department of Education Secretary of EducationAdministers federal aid to schools and conducts educational research Department of Veterans Affairs Secretary of Veterans Affairs Administers benefits, pensions, and medical programs for veterans of the armed forces Department of Homeland Security Secretary of Homeland Security Border and Transportation security; emergency preparedness and response

8  A number of independent agencies work outside the framework of the executive branch  There are three types of independent agencies that carry out specific duties

9 Independent Executive Agencies Independent Regulatory Commissions Government Corporations Organized like executive departments Do not have Cabinet status Regulates parts of the economy Are quasi-legislative and quasi-judicial Exist outside of presidential control carry out business-like activities Central Intelligence Agency Environmental Protection Agency Federal Emergency Management Agency Consumer Product Safety Commission Federal Trade Commission Securities & Exchange Commission Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) U.S. Postal Service

10 Taxes The Constitution gives Congress broad power to set federal taxes, which today are collected mostly as income taxes Progressive Tax – the more you make, the more you pay Tax Return – forms filed showing how much money you owe the government Payroll Taxes – money withheld from paychecks to send to the government: Social Security & Medicare Regressive Taxes – rate is the same for everyone – Social Insurance taxes Excise Tax – luxury tax Estate Tax – paid on the assets of someone who died Gift Tax – tax on gifts over $11,000 in one year Custom Duty – tax on goods brought into th e U.S. from another country

11 Income Spending The United States has a huge public debt, created by borrowing when government spending exceeded its income. In a year when the government spends more than it takes in, it must borrow money to make up the deficit.

12  The annual budget- making process is a joint effort of the President and both houses of Congress  The federal budget, the President’s yearly plan for conducting government, is a very important document President, with help of Office of Management and Budget, creates the budget President sends the budget to Congress Congress gives budget to Budget and Appropriations Committees in each house Congress approves final budget Congress sends appropriations bills to the President to authorize spending for the coming year Creating the Federal Budget

13  Both the State Department and the Defense Department assist the President in carrying out foreign policy  In the U.S., the President makes and carries out foreign policy with the help of key departments President STATE DEPARTMENT Secretary of State Ambassadors DEFENSE DEPARTMENT Secretary of Defense Joint Chiefs of Staff Dept.Dept.Dept. of the of theof the NavyArmyAir Force

14 AGENCYFUNCTION Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) gathers, analyzes, and distributes intelligence information conducts worldwide intelligence operations through espionage Immigration & Naturalization Service (INS) enforces immigration laws and requirements Administers immigration benefits such as political asylum National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) oversees the U.S. space programs Selective Service System manages the draft Several government agencies are closely involved with foreign and defense policy

15 U.S. Foreign Policy Participation in the United Nations Regional security alliances Foreign Aid MoneyMilitary assistance

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