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Presentation on theme: "CLIMATE."— Presentation transcript:


2 What is Climate? Climate - the weather conditions prevailing in an area in general over a long period

3 Climate Zones Tundra Desert Rain Forest Deciduous Forest
Climate BrainPOP Tundra Desert Rain Forest Deciduous Forest

4 Factors Affecting Climate
Temperature Factors 1. Latitude Average Yearly Temperature Yearly Temperature Range 2. Altitude 3. Ocean Currents 4. Marine Vs. Continental Rainfall Factors 1. Latitude 2. Mountains - Orographic Precipitation

5 Latitude - Average Yearly Temperature
The area that receives the most direct rays of the Sun (equator, 0°) will have the highest yearly temperatures. As latitude increases, average yearly temperatures decreases Avg. Yearly Temp. The area that receives the least direct rays of the sun (poles, 90°) will have the lowest yearly temperatures. 0° ° Latitude

6 Latitude - Yearly Temperature Range
Equatorial areas receive the direct rays of the Sun for most of the year. Therefore, the yearly temperature does not change much. Low Latitudes Temperature Mid Latitudes High Latitudes JFMAMJJASOND Month

7 Latitude - Yearly Temperature Range
As latitude increases, yearly temperature range increases Yearly Temperature Range 0° ° Latitude

8 Altitude - Average Yearly Temperature Range
Altitude - the height of an object above sea level. Low average yearly temperature range High average yearly temperature range

9 Altitude - Average Yearly Temperature
As altitude increases, average yearly temperature decreases Average Yearly Temperature Altitude

10 Ocean Currents Ocean currents move warm water from the equator towards the poles. Ocean currents move cold water from the poles back to the equator to be heated again. (pg. _4_ of ESRT) Animation

11 Ocean Currents

12 Marine vs. Continental Sea or land locations affects temperature ranges. Since land gains and loses heat much more quickly than water, land areas tend to have warmer summers and cooler winters. Coastal areas near the ocean have cooler summers and milder/warmer winters. Coastal areas have marine climates with a small yearly temperature range and areas inland have continental climates with a larger yearly temperature range

13 Marine Vs. Continental This graph shows the average monthly temperatures for two cities, A and B, which are both located at 41ºN latitude. Why is there a difference in the average yearly temperature range for the two cities? Because City A is located inland (continental) and City B is located near water (marine) Interactive Climate Map

14 Rainfall Factors - Latitude
Uneven heating of the Earth produces global wind & pressure belts. These belts determine the wetness or dryness of an area. Low Pressure - rising air creates precipitation High Pressure - sinking air creates a lack of precipitation Animation

15 Latitude Continued What latitudes are areas of low pressure?
What is the climate like there? What latitudes are areas of high pressure? 0°, 60°N, 60°S High rainfall 30°N, 30°S, 90°N, 90°S Low rainfall

16 Orographic Precipitation
LEEWARD WINDWARD 4.Condenses Windward 5. Precipitation 6. Sinks 3. Cools 7. Compresses 2. Expands rises 1. Rises 8. Warms Warm air Arid/Dry Humid/Moist

17 Windward Vs. Leeward Rainfall occurs on the windward side of the mountain where the air is rising. Cool & Wet It is dry on the leeward side of the mountain where the air is sinking. Warm & Dry

18 Orographic Precipitation Video

19 El Nino A warming of the surface water of the eastern and central Pacific Ocean, occurring every 4 to 12 years and causing unusual global weather patterns. El Nino brings heavy rain to western South American and drought to eastern Australia and Indonesia. Animation

20 El Nino Video


22 Lake Effect Snow The air moving over the water needs to be cooler than the water. The surface of the lake can’t be frozen

23 Lake Effect Snow Water begins evaporating off of the surface of the lake into the air. Fetch - distance over open water The greater distance the wind blows over the warm water, the greater the convection /evaporation.

24 Warm air over water begins to
Lake Effect Snow CLOUD FORMATION Warm air over water begins to CONDENSES COOL EXPAND RISE

25 Lake Effect Snow In some localities, wind blowing from a lake onshore is forced to climb up hills creating the orographic effect

26 Lake Effect Snow Video

27 Areas Affected by Lake Effect


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