Presentation on theme: "COS 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 IDENTIFY SOLUTIONS IN TERMS OF COMPONENTS, SOLUBILITY, CONCENTRATION, AND CONDUCTIVITY. COMPARE SATURATED, UNSATURATED AND SUPERSATURATD."— Presentation transcript:
COS 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 IDENTIFY SOLUTIONS IN TERMS OF COMPONENTS, SOLUBILITY, CONCENTRATION, AND CONDUCTIVITY. COMPARE SATURATED, UNSATURATED AND SUPERSATURATD SOLUTIONS. COMPARE CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTROLYTES AND NONELECTROLYTES. DESCRIBE FACTORS THAT AFFECT SOLUBILITY AND RATE OF SOLUTION, INCLUDING NATURE OF SOLUTE AND SOLVENT, TEMPERATURE, AGITATION, SURFACE AREA AND PRESSURE ON GASES.
WHAT YOU’LL LEARN Compare the properties of suspensions, colloids, & solutions. Explain the meaning of solubility & compare the solubilities of various substances. Examine the factors that affect the rates at which solids and gases dissolve in liquids. Explain how solvents work. Compare & contrast saturated, unsaturated, & supersaturated solutions.
SOLUTIONS homogeneous mixture of two or more substances uniformly dispersed in a single phase
PARTS OF A SOLUTION SOLUTE part of a solution that is being dissolved (lesser amount/%) SOLVENT part of a solution that dissolves the solute (greater amount/%) Solute + Solvent = Solution EXAMPLES air: 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen sterling silver: 92.5% silver, 7.5% copper
ALLOYS mixture of a metal with one or more elements that retains original properties. made by melting metal solute & solvent together Examples: coins, brass, sterling silver
Soluble easily dissolves in water limit to how much of a substance will dissolve. different substances have different solubilities.
Solvation combination of solvent molecules with molecules or ions of the solute
Miscible two or more liquids that can dissolve into each other in various proportions example: gasoline (100 liquids)
Immiscible two or more liquids that do not mix with each other example: oil & water
HOW THINGS DISSOLVE water molecules are constantly moving water molecules are polar has oppositely charged ends (+ and -) non-polar have same charges on its ends negative-positive areas attract “breaking” bonds
RULE FOR DISSOLVING SOLUTES IN A SOLVENT Like solutes dissolve in like solvents (polar in polar, non-polar in non-polar)
SURFACE AREA (CRYSTAL SIZE) dissolving takes place at surface area smaller crystals dissolve faster increases surface area more surface area faster dissolving less surface area slower dissolving Example: piece of candy
TEMPERATURE increasing temperature speeds up molecule movement increase in speed causes more solvent particles to “bump” into solute breaking them down lower temperature slows down process Example: sugar in hot water
PRESSURE affects solubility of gases in liquids Gases are more soluble at... low temperatures. high pressures Example: Soda goes flat quickly at room temperature carbon dioxide gas escapes
AGITATION AKA: mixing or stirringAKA: mixing or stirring increase in stirring causes more solvent particles to “bump” into soluteincrease in stirring causes more solvent particles to “bump” into solute causing more solute to dissolvecausing more solute to dissolve Example: sugar in waterExample: sugar in water
UNSATURATED contains less than max amount of solute that can dissolve at a particular temperature UNSATURATED SOLUTION more solute dissolves
SATURATED contains max quantity of solute that dissolves at that temperature. SATURATED SOLUTION no more solute dissolves
SUPERSATURATED contain more solute than is possible to be dissolved are unstable. supersaturation is only temporary, and usually accomplished in one of two ways: Warm solvent so that it will dissolve more, then cool the solution Evaporate some of solvent carefully so that the solute does not solidify and come out of solution. SUPERSATURATED SOLUTION becomes unstable, crystals form
AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS SSSSolution in which solvent is water (most common)
Electrolytes substance that dissolves in water to give a solution ability to conduct an electric current. Examples: sodium chloride and silver nitrate - + salt
Nonelectrolytes substances that dissolve in water that does not conduct electricity sugar, alcohol, benzene - + sugar
Electrolytes in the Body Carry messages to and from brain as electrical signals Maintain cellular function with correct concentrations electrolytes Make your own 50-70 g sugar One liter of warm water Pinch of salt 200ml of sugar free fruit squash Mix, cool and drink