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Solution A solution is a homogeneous mixture in which one substance is dissolved in another substance
Components of a solutionTwo parts of a solution: the substance being dissolved (solute) and the substance doing the dissolving (solvent)
Aqueous solution Solutions in which the solvent is water are aqueous solutions (most common)
Tinctures A solution in which the solvent is alcohol is a tincture Ex: iodine tincture
Characteristics of a solutionMixture of two or more substances light passes through it particles are uniformly distributed
Ions and dissociation Ions are atoms with a positive or negative charge
Electrolytes Solutions that conduct electricity are electrolytes (sodium chloride and silver nitrate)
Non-electrolytes Non-electrolytes form solutions that do not conduct electricity (sugar, alcohol, benzene)
Questions What is a solution? What are the two parts of a solution? What are three properties of a solution?
Questions What’s the difference between an aqueous solution and a tincture
Question If you wanted to dissolve a substance in water as quickly as possible what could you do?
Ways to increase dissolving rateIn order to increase the rate in which a solution dissolves one could heat the solution, stir it, or crush the solute particles
Solubility The measure of how much solute can be dissolved in a solvent is solubility
What affects solubility?The three main factors that affect solubility are temperature, type and the amount of the solvent
Effervescence (fizz) The escape of a gas from a liquid is effervescence (example: soda and alka seltzer)
Concentration Concentration of a solution is the amount of solute that is dissolved in a solvent
Concentrated vs. diluteA solution with a lot of solute dissolved is concentrated A solution with a little solute dissolved is dilute
Types of solutions A saturated solution contains all the solute it can possibly hold An unsaturated solution contains less solute that is possible
Supersaturated solutionA supersaturated solution can be made to hold more solute than is normal
Question Compare a saturated, unsaturated, and a supersaturated solution
Questions What is solubility and what are the three factors that affect it? What are three ways to increase the rate in which a solute dissolves?
Water Water is the universal solvent A substance that cannot dissolve in water is insoluble
Polar vs. non-polar A polar molecule has oppositely charged ends (+ and -) Non-polar molecules have the same charges on its ends
Rule for dissolving solutes in a solventLike solutes dissolve in like solvents (polar in polar, non-polar in non-polar)
Hard water vs. soft waterHard water contains dissolved metal ions Soft water does not contain dissolved metal ions
Freezing point depressionLowering the freezing point of a solution as a result of the dissolved solute (freezing point depression) Ex: antifreeze in water
Boiling point elevationRaising the boiling point of a substance by adding solute (salt in water)
Questions What is the difference between polar and non-polar molecules? What is the general rule for dissolving solutes?
Questions What is the difference between hard and soft water? How does a solute affect the freezing point and the boiling point?
Suspension A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which the solute particles are large enough to be seen (solute is suspended)
Colloid A colloid is a homogeneous mixture that is not a true solution (does not separate, solute remains suspended)
Acids Properties of an acid: sour taste, affecting the color of indicators, turn litmus paper from blue to red, pH 1-6.9
Weak acids vs. strong acidsWeak acids (pH ) Strong acids (pH about 1-3; common acids: sulfuric, hydrochloric, nitric, and acetic acids
Bases Bases are slippery, bitter taste, turn litmus paper from red to blue pH
Bases Common bases potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, and ammonium hydroxide
Weak bases vs. strong basesWeak bases ( pH) Strong bases (11-14 pH)
pH scale Measures hydronium ion concentration (strength of the acid or base) pH scale ranges from 0-14 (7 is the neutral point) water
Salt Salt is a compound formed when an acid is mixed with a base (positive ion from a base and a negative ion from an acid)
Neutralization A neutralization reaction occurs when an acid and a base combine to form salt and water
Precipitate A precipitate is an insoluble substance crystallizes out of solution (ex: salt from a neutralization reaction)
Precipitation reactionThe process of forming a precipitate is precipitation
Questions What is the pH scale used for? What is the pH range for an acid, a base?
Questions What are some properties of an acid? Of a base? Describe neutraliztion. What is a salt?
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