# Matter (Review and New)

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Matter (Review and New)
Recall that all matter can be classified as a mixture or a substance. Up to now we have concentrated on how to classify matter as substances (elements and compounds). Now, we are going to concentrated on how to classify mixtures.

Heterogeneous Mixtures
There are two types of heterogeneous mixtures: suspensions and colloids

Suspensions Particles are evenly dispersed
Particles in suspensions may be filtered out ex: you can separate sand and water Particles may settle out (separate) and are large in size 1) Immiscible liquids do not mix ex: oil and water a) immiscible liquids can be separated by pouring the less dense liquid off the top (called decanting)

Particle Size Suspensions > Colloids > Solutions
Particles are smaller than the particles in suspensions but are larger than the particles in a solution Particles cannot be filtered Particles do not settle out Tyndall effect  scattering of light by a colloid Particle Size Suspensions > Colloids > Solutions

Examples of colloids: gelatin desserts, whipped cream, smoke, and fog
Emulsion is a colloid in which liquids that normally do not mix are spread throughout each other Examples: 1) Mayonaise  egg yolk holds oil and vinegar together 2) Bile  allows your body to breakdown fat a) emulsifier  substance that holds the immiscible liquid together

Homogeneous Solutions (Solutions)
Homogeneous mixtures are uniform throughout; all samples are the same All homogeneous mixtures are solutions A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances uniformly dispersed throughout a single phase Solutions are made of solutes and solvents 1) solute – what is dissolved 2) solvent – what does the dissolving; present in the greatest amount

Miscible Liquids mix to form solutions
Miscible is defined as 2 or more liquids that form a single layer when mixed Ex: rubbing alcohol (water and isopropanol) Miscible liquids can be separated by distillation (boiling off one liquid) a) Distillation only works with liquids that have different boiling points

Other States of Matter (beside liquids) can form solutions
Many common solutions are solids dissolved in liquids (salt water) Solutions can be made by dissolving a liquid in another liquid (vinegar is made of acetic acid dissolved in water) Gases dissolved in gases are solutions (air) Gases can be dissolved in liquids (CO2 dissolved in water gives soda the fizz)

5) Gases can be dissolved in solids to make solutions (moth balls)
6) Solids dissolved in solids make a solution (brass is made of copper and zinc) a) An alloy defined as a solid or a liquid mixture of two or more metals.

Solutions A solution is a mixture that has the same composition, color, density, and taste throughout. The atoms in a solution are evenly spread out. Solutions are homogeneous

Phases of Solutions Solutions can exist in the solid, liquid, and gas phases All mixtures of gases are solutions, including air Solutions in the solid phase are called alloys. Examples of alloys are: Brass, coins

Solutes and Solvents Solute is the substance that is being dissolved.
Solvent is what does the dissolving (typically water) Example: Salt water Salt is the solute Water is the solvent

Water: A polar molecule
Polar  slightly positive and slightly negative ends Because water is a polar molecule, it is known as the Universal Solvent Oxygen end has a slightly (-) charge, Hydrogen has a slightly (+) charge. O- H+ H+

Dissolving a Solid in a Liquid
Dissolving salt in water. NaCl is held together by an ionic bond. However, the Cl end is more negative than the Na end. Step One The moving water molecules collide with the salt molecules as the water’s negative ends are attracted to the positive ends of the salt molecules. Cl- Na+ H+ Cl- H+ Na+ O- O- H+ H+

Step Two: The water molecules surround and pull the salt molecule apart creating Na+ and Cl- into solution. The attractive forces between the water and salt molecules are stronger than the forces holding the NaCl molecule together. H+ H+ O- Cl- Na+ O- H+ H+

Step Three The water molecules and salt molecules spread out to form a homogeneous solution. The process continues until all the salt molecules have dissolved.

Non polar Molecules Non polar materials have no positive or negative ends. Are not attracted to water, so they do not dissolve easily in water Examples: oil, soap

Rate of Dissolving Stirring will increase the dissolving rate. By stirring a solution, more fresh solvent comes into contact with the solute. Crushing the solvent will increase the dissolving rate. Crushing creates more surface area for the solvent to interact with. Increasing the temperature will also increase the dissolving rate. Increasing the temperature speeds up the movement of the solute molecules creating more solute/solvent collisions

How much can dissolve? Solubility is the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a given temperature. Each beaker contains the same amount of water and water of the same temperature. Only 1g of “A” dissolves in 100 mL of water, but more than 3g of “B” dissolves in the same amount of water at the same temperature. Substance B is more soluble.

Solubility Curves Compare the solubility of different substances at different conditions Notice that for most solutes, as temperature increases more solute is able to dissolve.

How much potassium nitrate will dissolve at 80°C in 100 g of water?

How much potassium nitrate will dissolve at 80°C in 100 g of water?

At what temperature will 100 g of potassium bromide dissolve in 100 g of water?

At what temperature will 100 g of potassium bromide dissolve in 100 g of water?
95°C

Concentration Concentrated solution  large amount of solute in the solvent Dilute solution  small amount of solute in the solvent “watered down”

Types of Solutions Saturated Solutions  contains all the solute it can hold at a given temperature. Unsaturated Solutions  can dissolve more solute at a given temperature. Supersaturated Solution  contains more solute than a saturated solution at the same temperature a) unstable  if you disturb them, crystals will form

The Solubility of Gases
Depend on the temperature and pressure Increase temperature then solubility of gas decreases because the gas molecules move around faster and escape the liquid. Increase pressure then solubility of gas increases because the pressure holds the gas molecules in the liquid.

Gas solubility and fish
Amount of oxygen gas in water decreases as temperature increases. Fish will go to the bottom of ponds or lakes during warm weather because that is where the oxygen is located.