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Presentation on theme: "Vegetables."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vegetables

2 Vegetables Any edible part of the plant (leaves, roots, tubers or stalks) except, in most cases, the fruit. Some plant foods that we consider vegetables are botanically, fruit For example: avocado, squash, cucumber, tomatoes and eggplant

3 Botanical Names for Vegetables-Parts of plant from which they come.
Tubers- Potato Bulbs- Chives, Onions, Garlic, Leeks, Shallots Roots- Beets, Turnips, Carrots, Radish Stem- Asparagus, Celery, Mushrooms Leaves- Brussel Sprouts, Cabbage, Broccoli, Spinach Seeds- Beans, Corn, Peas Flowers- Artichokes, Cauliflower, Broccoli Fruit- Cucumber, Eggplant, Tomato, Peppers, Squash

4 Flavors Strong Cabbage Brussel Sprouts Turnips Cauliflower Onions Mild
Most all vegetables

5 Nutrients Water contents from fruits, stems, floers, and leaves
Examples: Tomato, celery, broccoli, lettuce Starch from tubers, bulbs, roots, and seeds Examples: potato, lima beans, and corn

6 Color Yellow White Red Green

7 Forms Fresh Canned Frozen Dried

8 Nutrient Contribution
Vitamins Chlorophyll: green substance of plant cells that gives their green color Vitamin A:eyes Leafy green and deep yellow vegetables contain carotene which converts to Vitamin A Vitamin C Most vegetables contain vitamin C-broccoli, green peppers, tomatoes, cabbage. Vitamin B Lima Beans and peas

9 Nutrient Contribution
Minerals Calcium Iron Carbohydrates Cellulose, starch, and sugar Proteins Dried beans and peas

10 Principles of Cookery Goal to retain color, flavor, nutrient, texture
Cellulose structure softens Starch absorbs water Water- soluble vitamins from vegetables seep out into cooking liquid such as vitamins B and C Amount of water Loss of nutrients is reduced when cooked in small amount of water Pan is covered to prevent loss of water and scorching

11 Principles of Cookery Length of Cooking Time
Vitamins are destroyed by heat and overcooking Cook only until fork tender and still slightly crisp Overcooking dulls the bright colors of vegetables, lose their texture and shape Properly cooked vegetables retain their color, flavor, texture, and nutrients

12 Selection and Buying Canned Fresh Frozen Dried
More water, cooked at processing time, graded by government Fresh More nutritious, crisp, firm, color Frozen Label information is your guide Dried Beans, peas, legumes:Soaked before cooking

13 Care and Storage Refrigerate most Tubers and root vegetables
Examine first before putting away Tubers and root vegetables Store in a cool, dry, dark place Canned vegetables On shelf at room temperature, use within a year Frozen Use immediately when thawed

14 Way to Prepare Vegetables
Baking Steaming Simmering Microwave Frying

15 How to cook on Range in sauce Pan
Start vegetables cooking in salted, boiling water. Return water to boil as quickly as possible. Cook in small amount of water just enough to prevent scorching Cook vegetables to barely done. Serve immediately.

16 How Vitamin and Mineral Losses Occur:
Through the dissolving action of the water. Chemical decomposition, which may influenced by the cooking medium Mechanical losses of nutrients; result of paring, rapid boiling, and overcooking Quick evaporation

17 Picking quality vegetables
firm texture free from decay crisp smooth dense free from bruises good color


19 There are 5 basic fruit groups

20 Serving Sizes What is a serving size?? How many servings do we need??
1 Medium Apple ½ cup of cut up fruit ¾ cup of 100% fruit juice How many servings do we need?? 2 cups everyday

21 Botanical Names for Fruit
Pomes- Smooth skin and an enlarged fleshy area that surrounds the core. Ex. Apple, pear, kiwi Drupes- Contain a single seed, or pit, surrounded by juicy flesh. Ex. Peach, cherry, plum, nectarines, apricot Berries- Fragile cell structure; pulpy and juicy; tiny seeds embedded in flesh Ex. Blackberries, cranberries, strawberries, grapes

22 Botanical Names Melons- Hard out surface that is smooth or netted; juicy flesh. Ex. Cantaloupe, watermelon, honeydew Citrus Fruits- Grow in warm regions; firm rind and pulpy flesh. Ex. Oranges, grapefruit, lemons, kumquat, and limes Tropical Fruits- Grow in very warm climates; differ in skin composition and seed characteristics. Ex. Bananas, pineapple, figs, mangos, papayas.

23 Forms of Fruit Fresh fruit Canned fruit Frozen fruit Dried fruit

24 Selecting Fruit Buy Fruits that are… Firm to the touch The right color
Well shaped Heavy for their size Aromatic In good condition

25 Selecting Fruits Avoid fruits that are… Too soft Too hard
Green or under ripe Damaged Bruised Decayed Mildewed Discolored

26 Storage of Fruits Fresh- ripe fruits are perishable and should be stored in a special drawer to prevent rapid loss of moisture. They should be washed before storage, except for berries, which spoil after being washed. Ripen fruits(bananas & peaches) at room temperature before storing. Frozen- store immediately in freezer. Do not thaw until ready to use. Do not refreeze after being thawed. Canned- cool, dry place. After opening can, fruit becomes perishable and put in a container. Dried- cool, dry place in original container. After opening, close container tightly.

27 Nutritional Contribution
Vitamin A-Melons and peaches Found in yellow to red fruits, contain carotene. Prevents night blindness Vitamin C- citrus fruits Bones become fragile Gums become soft and bleed easily Wounds and broken bones do not heal properly Minerals Iron: for red blood Found in oranges, strawberries, and dried fruits Calcium: for strong bones and teeth Found in oranges, strawberries and dried fruit.

28 Nutrient Contribution
Sugar and Cellulose Supply us with energy Skin and pulp contain cellulose Body does not digest and serves as a natural laxative Fruits contain very little Protein Fat

29 Preparation of Fruits Most fruits are delicious when eaten raw and have more nutrient value. Prepare in small amount of liquid to preserve vitamins and minerals. Cutting fruit with low acid content, turn dark Add acid fruit juice to avoid Can be cooked by: Simmering: applesauce Stewing: peach or pear Cooked in sugar Baking: apples Microwaving

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