Architecture & Organization All Intel x86 family share the same basic architectureAll Intel x86 family share the same basic architecture The IBM System/370 family share the same basic architectureThe IBM System/370 family share the same basic architecture This gives code compatibilityThis gives code compatibility –At least backwards Organization differs between different versionsOrganization differs between different versions
Structure & Function Structure is the way in which components relate to each otherStructure is the way in which components relate to each other Function is the operation of individual components as part of the structureFunction is the operation of individual components as part of the structure Both the structure and function is the main function that a computer can perform.Both the structure and function is the main function that a computer can perform.
ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator And ComputerElectronic Numerical Integrator And Computer Started 1943 and finished 1946Started 1943 and finished 1946 Was the first general-purpose electronic computerWas the first general-purpose electronic computer Eckert and MauchlyEckert and Mauchly University of PennsylvaniaUniversity of Pennsylvania Trajectory tables for weaponsTrajectory tables for weapons –ENIAC was designed to calculate artillery firing tables for the United States Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory –Too late for war effort
ENIAC - details Decimal (not binary)Decimal (not binary) 20 accumulators of 10 digits20 accumulators of 10 digits Programmed manually by switchesProgrammed manually by switches 18,000 vacuum tubes18,000 vacuum tubes 30 tons30 tons 15,000 square feet15,000 square feet 140 kW power consumption140 kW power consumption 5,000 additions per second5,000 additions per second
Von Neumann/Turing Stored Program conceptStored Program concept Main memory storing programs and dataMain memory storing programs and data ALU operating on binary dataALU operating on binary data Control unit interpreting instructions from memory and executingControl unit interpreting instructions from memory and executing Input and output equipment operated by control unitInput and output equipment operated by control unit Princeton Institute for Advanced Studies - IASPrinceton Institute for Advanced Studies - IAS Completed 1952Completed 1952
IAS - details 1000 x 40 bit words1000 x 40 bit words –Binary number –2 x 20 bit instructions Set of registers (storage in CPU)Set of registers (storage in CPU) –Memory Buffer Register –Memory Address Register –Instruction Register –Instruction Buffer Register –Program Counter –Accumulator –Multiplier Quotient
Generations of Computer Vacuum tube - 1946-1957Vacuum tube - 1946-1957 Transistor - 1958-1964Transistor - 1958-1964 Small scale integration - 1965 onSmall scale integration - 1965 on –Up to 100 devices on a chip Medium scale integration - to 1971Medium scale integration - to 1971 –100-3,000 devices on a chip Large scale integration - 1971-1977Large scale integration - 1971-1977 –3,000 - 100,000 devices on a chip Very large scale integration - 1978 to dateVery large scale integration - 1978 to date –100,000 - 100,000,000 devices on a chip Ultra large scale integrationUltra large scale integration –Over 100,000,000 devices on a chip
PREPARED BY: RAZIF RAZALI20 Categories of Computer system Computer comes in sizes from tiny to monstrous, in both appearance and power.Computer comes in sizes from tiny to monstrous, in both appearance and power. –Personal Computers (PC) Most often called microcomputers or desktop computers. Price from RM1000 to RM3000. –Minicomputers Also known as midrange computers. Less expensive and are generally limited in their storage capability.
PREPARED BY: RAZIF RAZALI21 Categories of Computer system –Mainframes Capable of processing data at very high speeds – billions of instructions per second. Price from several hundred to millions dollar. –Supercomputers The mightiest computer and the most expensive. The fastest – can process trillions of instruction per second.