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Ch 1-Introduction to Earth Science

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1 Ch 1-Introduction to Earth Science
Objectives Describe the 2 cultures that contributed to modern scientific study Name the 4 branches of Earth Science Discuss how Earth Scientists help us understand the world around us Identify the steps that make up scientific methods Analyze how scientific thought changes as new info is collected Explain how science affects society

2 Scientific Study of Earth
What is Earth Science? Study of Earth and the universe around it Explain what makes up Earth Chinese-Earthquakes in 780 BC Greeks-Rocks and minerals about 200 BC Maya-Movements of sun, moon, planets, created calendars

3 4 Branches of Earth Science
What has made observations and knowledge of Earth Science more possible? Technology How? Geology Study of the origin, history processes, and structure of solid Earth What exactly do they study?

4 Oceanography Meteorology Astronomy
Study of Earth’s oceans How much of Earth’s surface does oceans actually cover? Meteorology Study of Earth’s atmosphere How do scientists do this? Astronomy Study of universe beyond Earth One of oldest branches of Earth Science Environmental Science-Study of how humans interact w/ their environment, study of natural resources, pollution, health of plant and animal species on Earth, study effects of industries and technologies on environment

5 Importance of Earth Science
Why is Earth Science important? Predict potential disasters By studying rock layers, Geologists have found clues to Earth’s past environments and to evolution of life on planet Help gain access to Earth’s resources

6 Sec 2: Science as Process
What is the scientific method? A way to ask and answer scientific questions by making observations and doing experiments Steps that make up scientific methods Ask a question-about something that you observe: How, What, When, Who, Which, Why, or Where? In order for the scientific method to answer the question it must be about something that you can measure, preferably with a number Collect observations using senses

7 Construct a hypothesis-an educated guess about how things work
If _______ (I do this)_______, than _(this)__ will happen You must state your hypothesis in a way that you can easily measure, your hypothesis should be constructed in a way to help you answer your original question The quantities that are measured are called variables-any factor, trait, or condition that exist in differing amounts or types Independent, dependent, controlled

8 Lets set up a scientific method problem
Independent variable-the one that is changed or manipulated by the scientist Must be measurable, changeable Dependent variable-variable depends and changes based on what happens with independent variable Must be measurable Controlled variables-quantities that must remain constant for an accurate experiment Most experiments have more than one controlled variable, also known as constant variables Control group- group that serves as a standard of comparison with another group to which the control group is identical except for one factor Lets set up a scientific method problem

9 Test your hypothesis by doing an experiment
Experimental group and control group Hypothesis true or false Important for it to be fair test Repeat experiment several times. Why? Analyze your data and draw a conclusion Collect measurements and analyze them to see if hypothesis is true or false If false, construct new hypothesis Share results

10 Acceptance of Scientific Ideas
Scientists present work in scientific journals or professional meetings, published online What if there is an error or mistake in work? Peer review What is a theory? Explanation that is consistent w/ all existing tests and observations, based on scientific laws

11 How science affects society
Science is used to develop new technologies, new tools, machines, material processes, positive and negative effects

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