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Introduction to Earth Science Section 1- What is Earth Science Section 2- Science as a Process.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Earth Science Section 1- What is Earth Science Section 2- Science as a Process."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Earth Science Section 1- What is Earth Science Section 2- Science as a Process

2 Section One What is Earth Science – The scientific study of Earth and the universe around it

3 History Chinese scientist began keeping record of earthquakes as early as 780 BC For many centuries, scientific discoveries were limited to observations of phenomena 16 th and 17 th Century the microscope and telescope were invented Eventually, the body of knowledge about Earth became known as Earth Science

4 Branches of Earth Science Geology Oceanography Meteorology Astronomy

5 Geology The scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth and the processes that shape the Earth

6 Oceanography The scientific study of the ocean, including the properties and movement s of ocean water, the characteristics of the ocean floor, and the organisms that live in the ocean

7 Meteorology The scientific study of Earth’s atmosphere, especially in relation to weather and climate

8 Astronomy The scientific study of the universe One of the oldest branches of science

9 The Importance of Earth Science Natural forces not only shape Earth, but also affect life on Earth Why is it important to understand the Earth science?

10 Section Two Science as a Process – The goal of science is to explain natural phenomena – Scientist ask questions about natural events and then work to answer those questions through experiments and examination

11 Behavior of Natural Systems Scientist start with the assumption that nature is understandable Scientist also expect that nature is predictable

12 Scientific Methods A development of organized and logical approaches to scientific research Scientific Methods are NOT: – A set of sequential steps that scientist always follow Scientific Methods are: – Guidelines to scientific problem solving

13 Ask A Question Observation – The process of obtaining information by using the senses; the information obtained by using the senses – They often lead to questions

14 Form a Hypothesis Hypothesis – An idea or explanation that is based on observations and that can be tested – Most are based on known facts about similar events

15 Test the Hypothesis An experiment is a procedure that is carried out according to certain guidelines Factors that can be changed in an experiment are variables Variables: – Independent Variable In an experiment, the factor that is deliberately manipulated – Dependent Variable In an experiment, the factor that changes as a result of manipulation of one or more other factors

16 Draw Conclusions After many experiments and observations, a scientist may reach conclusions about his or her hypothesis If the hypothesis fits the know facts – It is accepted as TRUE If results differ – It may be changed or discarded

17 Scientific Measurements and Analysis Measurement – The comparison of some aspect of an object or event with a standard unit International System of Units (SI) – This system includes standard measurements for: Length Mass Temperature Volume

18 Accuracy and Precision Accuracy – How close the measurement is to the true value of the thing being measured Precision – The exactness of the measurement

19 Error An expression of the amount of imprecision or variation in a set of measurements Expressed as a Percentage Error:

20 Observations and Models Model – A description, representation, or imitation of an object, system, process, or concept Physical Models Graphical Models

21 Acceptance of Scientific Ideas When scientist reach a conclusion, they introduce their findings to the scientific community New scientific ideas undergo review and testing by other scientist before the ideas are accepted

22 Publication of Results and Conclusions Scientist commonly present the results of their work in scientific journal or a professional meetings Many journal are now being published online to allow scientist quicker access to the results of other scientist

23 Peer Review The process in which several experts on a given topic review another expert’s work on that topic before the work gets published Serves as a filter, which allows only well- supported ideas to be published

24 Formulating a Theory The explanation for some phenomenon that is based on observation, experimentation, and reasoning; that is supported by a large quantity of evidence; and that does not conflict with any existing experimental results or observations

25 The Importance of Interdisciplinary Science The free exchange of ideas between fields of science allows scientist to identify explanations that fit a wide range of scientific evidence

26 Science and Society Scientific knowledge helps us understand our world Science is a part of society, and advances in science can have important and long-lasting effects on both science and society

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