Presentation on theme: "Joints, Movement and Injuries. Joint Classification Fibrous Joints Found where bones have close contact with each other. Connective tissue found between."— Presentation transcript:
Joint Classification Fibrous Joints Found where bones have close contact with each other. Connective tissue found between the joint Little to no movement Ex. Found between the sutures of the skull
Cartilaginous joints Found where shock absorption occurs. Hyaline cartilage or fibro-cartilage found between the joint. Limited movement, twisting and bending. Found between the vertebrae, sternum to ribs and pubis bone.
Synovial Joints Most of the joints in the skeletal system are synovial joints which allow free movement. Includes hyaline cartilage, connective tissue, synovial membrane and fluid and bursa. Classified into six categories: Ball and Socket, Hinge, Saddle, Condylar (ellipsoid), Pivot and Plane (gliding)
1. Ball-and-Socket joint Ball shaped head of one bone connects to cup-shaped cavity of another. Allows circular motion and motion in all planes. Hip and shoulder
2. Condylar joint (ellipsoid) Oval shaped condyle fits into an elliptical cavity of another. Variety of movements in different planes but not rotational.(twisting) Metacarpals connection with the phalanges.
3. Plane Joints Flat and curved surfaces connect. Allows sliding and gliding motion. Bones of wrist and ankle.
4. Hinge Joint Convex surface of one bone connects to concave surface of another. Movement in one plane. (like a door) Elbow, knee and phalanges.
5. Pivot joint Cylindrical surface of one bone rotates within a ring formed of bone and ligament. Movement around a central axis-rotation. Atlas (the Greek god who supported the world on his shoulders) and axis in Cervical vertebrae.
6. Saddle joint Connect bones with convex and concave surfaces. Variety of movements in two planes. Bones at carpal and metacarpal of thumb.
Dislocations A dislocation occurs when a joint comes apart and stays apart with the bone ends no longer in contact. The shoulders, elbows, fingers, hips, kneecaps, and ankles are the joints most frequently affected.
Recognizing Dislocations Deformity (the main sign) Severe pain Swelling Inability of the victim to move the injured joint
Sprains A sprain occurs when a joint is twisted or stretched beyond its normal range of motion. When a joint is sprained, the ligaments are either partially or completely torn. Sprains most often occur in the knee and the ankle.
Recognizing Sprains Severe pain Pain prevents the victim from moving or using the joint Swelling Skin around the joint may be discolored because of bleeding from torn blood vessels.