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www.wiley.com/college/sekaran Scientific InvestigationChapter 2 Scientific Investigation © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hallmarks of scientific research:Hallmarks or main distinguishing characteristics of scientific research: Purposiveness Rigor Testability Replicability Precision and Conﬁdence Objectivity Generalizability Parsimony © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hypothetico-Deductive ResearchThe Seven-Step Process in the Hypothetico-Deductive Method Identify a broad problem area Define the problem statement Develop hypotheses Determine measures Data collection Data analysis Interpretation of data © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Deduction and InductionDeductive reasoning: application of a general theory to a specific case. Hypothesis testing Inductive reasoning: a process where we observe specific phenomena and on this basis arrive at general conclusions. Counting white swans Both inductive and deductive processes are often used in research. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Alternative approaches to what makes good researchPositivism Constructionnism The middle ground: Critical realism Pragmatism © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
© 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. www.wiley.com/college/sekaranPositivism Scientific research is the way to get to the truth Rigour and replicability, reliability, and generalizability Key approach: experiment © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
© 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. www.wiley.com/college/sekaranCritical realism There is an external reality but we cannot always objectively measure this external reality The critical realist is critical of our ability to understand the world with certainty © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
© 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. www.wiley.com/college/sekaranConstructionism The world as we know it is fundamentally mental Aim to understand the rules people use to make sense of the world Research methods are often qualitative in nature © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
© 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. www.wiley.com/college/sekaranPragmatism Do not take a particular position on what makes good research Research on both objective and subjective phenomena can produce useful knowledge Relationship between theory and practice Purpose of theory is to inform practice © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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