2 IntroductionThe study of the philosophy of knowledge is referred to as ontology.The philosophical study of how such knowledge is acquired is referred to as epistemology.The ontological and epistemological positions have important implications for the way that research is:1. approached 2. type of data collected3. how data is collected 4. interpretation5. conclusions to be drwan
3 The Nature of Knowledge Two broad Approaches1. Positivism2. InterpretivismEach has differing assumptions and implications for methodology.
4 PositivismPositivism refers to the school of thought that only “true” or valid form of knowledge is that which “scientific,” that is where the principles and methods of the natural sciences (chemistry or physics) are used to study human behavior, which in itself is objective and tangible in nature.Concepts such as feelings, emotions, beliefs and so on have no place in research as they cannot be directly observed or measured, they are unreliable and they are not constant over time.
5 Positivism Cont.Control: The researcher is able to control one variable, and asses the influence that it has on another variable.Replication: To explain a phenomenon, the same result would need to occur if the experiment was to be repeated.Hypothesis testing: Positivistic research involves the creation of a hypothesis, which can then be systematically tested.
6 Key Term: HypothesisA hypothesis is essentially a predicted result, based on existing knowledge.Hypotheses must be testable, so that the hypothesis can either be supported or refuted by the research.Many research projects also present a null hypothesis. A null hypothesis suggest that there is no relationship between the variables under investigation.
7 Verification and Falsification of Hypothesis Positivistic approach= able to demonstrate that your hypothesis is true.It is easier to falsify the hypothesis than confirm one. You must take that into consideration when testing your own hypotheses.
8 InterpretivismFeelings or emotions form the basis of the interpretative approach.Unlike positivism, the interpretative approach does not measure data numerically.Measured in words or statementsData is interpreted by the researcher, who attempts to uncover meanings, values, explanations and so on.
9 Interpretivism Cont. Strengths: Approach allows the researcher to gain an insider’s perspective, find out the subjects from “within”Uncover explanations, rather than deduce them from measurements.Able to describe and explain the relationship from the viewpoint of those being investigated.
10 Interpretivism Weaknesses Interpreting people’s thoughts and feelings leads to questions over reliability and validity- according to positivists.The findings are less likely to be genralisable to other settings, and the overall time and resources required to collect such information tends to be greater.
11 Quantitative and Qualitative Research Refers to the characteristics of the data collected by the researcher.The use of numerical measurement and analysis is referred to as a quantitative approach, that is research that involves measurable “quantities.”This would give you a set of numerical data, which could then be statistically analyzed to determine whether a relationship existed between the two subjects tested.
12 Quantitative and Qualitative Research Cont. Remember: Quantitative research = both variables are directly measurable, and easily converted into numerical form, which can be statistically analyzed.Quantitative research is closely related to the Positivist approach.Qualitative research aims to capture qualities that are not quantifiable or reduced to numbers, such as feelings, thoughts, experiences and so on.Qualitative research uses non-numerical data and analysis to describe and understand such concepts.
14 Choosing Quantitative or Qualitative Approaches Deciding to collect either quantitative or qualitative data depends upon the nature of the research of the research question and the objective of your research.There is no one “better” approach, rather the approach should be dictated by the research question.Do not choose one because you are uncomfortable collecting data for the other one.
15 Mixing Quantitative and Qualitative Data Blending qualitative methods of research can produce a final product which can highlight the significant contributions of both.Qualitative data can be used to support and explicate the meaning of quantitative research in terms of providing some explanation to quantitative measurements.Linking types of data provides a way to use statistics, the traditional language of research, along with anecdotes and narrative for further clarity.
16 Mixing Quantitative and Qualitative Data Cont. Descriptive Statistics do not tell the meanings of physical activity.In-depth interviews alone are not necessarily representative of the sample.Together, however, linking the data gives a bigger picture of the research topic.Can also provide a holistic conclusion.One may facilitate the otherBoth approaches investigate the same phenomenon.
17 Deductive and Inductive Research Deductive research is more generally associated with positivist and quantitative research.It involves the development of an idea, or hypothesis, from existing theory which can be tested through the collection of data.Deductive research progression:A statement regarding the theory used to underpin researchA statement deduced from that theory that suggest, if the theory is true, the relationship between two or more variables- your hypothesis.
18 Deductive and Inductive Research Cont. 3. Collecting data to test this hypothesis.4. Using the results to confirm, modify or refute the theory used to develop the hypothesis.Inductive research is more often associated with interpretative, qualitative studies.The pattern is to collect data, and analyze that data to develop a theory, model or explanation.
20 What Approach To Use For My Research? Can I measure the phenomenon I am interested in numerically?Am I concerned only with measurable facts?Am I concerned with the individual’s views or explanations of what is happening?Do I thin that the truth is different for each individual, and cannot develop scientific laws of behavior?
21 What Approach To Use For My Research? Cont. If you answer “yes” to the first two and “no” to the last two questions, then you are likely to follow a positivist, quantitative approach.If you responded “no” to the first two and “yes” to the final two, then you are likely to follow an inductive, qualitative approach.
22 Assignment You must now develop a research question. This should be something of interest to you regarding athletics.It can be related to any levelIt can be about anything relating to that sport(s).A hand out will be provided for review.