Presentation on theme: "Vitamins and Minerals Fall 2013 - Foods. What are vitamins? Complex substances in food. Found in a wide range of food (more colorful = more vitamins."— Presentation transcript:
What are vitamins? Complex substances in food. Found in a wide range of food (more colorful = more vitamins and minerals) Don’t supply any energy Not part of any body structure Support many chemical reactions If a deficiency body malfunctions can occur Anti-oxidants – protect body cells and the immune system from damage that can be done by chemicals in the air
Water-Soluble Vitamins Dissolve in water and pass easily into the bloodstream. Stay in your bloodstream for a very short amount of time, so need to replenish often. Body doesn’t story water-soluble vitamins – excretes them through the urine Consuming LARGE amounts is NOT a good idea
Vitamin C Water-soluble vitamin Helps maintain healthy capillaries, bones, skin, and teeth. The enzyme that forms and takes care of collagen depends on vitamin C. Lack of vitamin C can lead to a poor appetite, weakness, bruising, sore joints Scurvy – severe lack of vitamin C Sailors = limey’s
Thiamin (b1) Helps turn carbs into energy. Needed for muscle coordination and healthy nervous system. Lack of Thiamin can lead to nausea, apathy, loss of appetite. Should get all the thiamin needed by eating a variety of foods.
Riboflavin (b2) Helps the body release energy from carbs, fats, and proteins. Contributes to body growth and red cell production. Deficiency is rare, but symptoms are light sensitivity, gritty eyes, sore tongue, mouth, and lip sores, and dry flaky skin.
Niacin (b3) Helps release energy from carbs, fats, and proteins. Needed for healthy nervous system and mucous membranes. Lack of niacin can lead to Pellagra. Pellagra = skin lesions, mental and digestive problems. Really common problem in the 1900’s due to poor diets
Folate (Folic Acid) Teams with vitamin B2 to help build red blood cells and form genetic material. Helps the body use protein and may protect against heart disease. Very important in helping prevent birth defects that damage the brain and spinal cord. Added to most grain products. Found in leafy green vegetables.
Fat-Soluble Vitamins Absorbed and transported by fat. A,D,E and K. (Ants Don’t Eat Kangaroos) Extra fat soluble vitamins are stored in the liver Too many stored vitamins can be harmful to the body. BE VERY CAREFUL WITH SUPPLEMENTS!!!!
Vitamin A Promotes good vision and helps maintain tissues and skin. Supports reproduction and growth. Deficiencies can cause rough, scaly skin and infections in the respiratory tract. Deficiency is a serious problem in developing countries. Causes night blindness and total blindness in children. Found in vegetables and fruits.
Vitamin D Partners with Calcium to maintain bone health. Considered the “Sunshine Vitamin” The body can make it’s own vitamin D with the help of sunshine. Fortified milk also contains large amounts of Vitamin D. Lack of vitamin D can cause Ricketts.
Vitamins E and K Vitamin E is an antioxidant it protects cells from oxidation damage especially in the lungs. Deficiency is rare because it is found in many foods. Vitamin K helps with the clotting of blood. With a healthy diet deficiency is very rare.
Minerals - Calcium Helps regulate blood clotting, nerve activity, and many other blood processes. Essential for keeping your bones strong. Lack of calcium can lead to osteoporosis which causes bones to become weak and fragile. Bone mass builds during childhood, so it is important to remember to get enough calcium now.
Phosphorus and Magnesium Phosphorus works with calcium to build strong bones and teeth. Releases energy from carbs, fats, and proteins. Magnesium helps build bones and make proteins. Helps nerves and muscles work normally. Deficiencies are very uncommon in both phosphorus and magnesium.
Sodium, Chloride, and Potassium Helps control osmosis. This combination helps form electrolytes. Sodium helps with muscle and nerve action, also helps regulate blood pressure. Chloride helps transmit nerve signals. Excess of sodium is very common. Can lead to hypertension or high blood pressure.
Trace Minerals Need these in a small amount but still very important. Iron – essential for making hemoglobin. Anemia can occur if there is a deficiency. Iodine – stored in the thyroid gland. Produces substances needed for growth and development. Zinc – helps enzymes do their work and aids the immune system.