Do Not Provide ENERGY, but perform a wide variety of body functions. They do not have calories VITAMINS- compounds found in food that help regulate many body functions MINERALS- elements found in food that are used by the body Deficiency- General Lack of something.
Water Soluble- Dissolve in water and pass easily into the bloodstream during digestion. The body doesn’t store these vitamins; any unused amounts are removed by the kidneys ( urination) Fat Soluble- Stored in FAT for later use.
Benefits- Keeps eyes and skin healthy Needed for growth and strong bones Deficiency- Growth retardation, night blindness, dryness of the eye, DEATH
Produces energy from carbs and helps the nervous system. Deficiency- Poor memory and confusion, BeriBeri- lethargic and fatigue
Prevents and treats migraine headaches, cataracts, arthritis. Also helps to maintain a proper metabolism. Deficiency- Skin cracking in corners of mouth, bloodshot eyes, sensitivity to light and lesions of the skin. Food- Milk, meat, whole grains, pasta
Protein metabolism Deficiency- nerve damage, convulsions, and anemia-condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Foods- Bananas, peas, whole grains, fish
FOLIC ACID ( B Vitamin) - Needed for forming cells and helps prevent birth defects. Deficiency- Diarrhea, weight loss, anemia, birth defects of the spinal cord. Foods- Liver, orange juice, green vegetables. Recommendation: 400 to 800 mcg or micrograms of folic acid every day
When a woman has enough folic acid in her body before and during pregnancy, it can prevent major birth defects, including: Spina bifida- when an unborn baby’s spinal column does not close to protect the spinal cord. As a result, the nerves that control leg movements and other functions do not work. Anencephaly -when most or all of the brain does not develop. Babies with this problem die before or shortly after birth.
Promotes healthy gums and teeth. Helps the healing of wounds and acts as an antioxidant. Deficiency- Scurvy- gum bleeding.
Absorption of Calcium and phosphorus in the intestine. Needed for strong bones and teeth. Deficiency- Rickets- Skeletal deformities in children. Bone loss in adults.
Protects cell membranes. Deficiency- Anemia, loss of reflexes Food- Vegetable oils, nuts, dark green
Aids in Blood Clotting Deficiency- Alzheimer’s disease and hemorrhages. Foods- Spinach and Broccoli.
Calcium- Forms bones and teeth, aids blood clotting. Reduces the risk of osteoporosis. Phosphorus- Maintains healthy bones. Magnesium- Maintains muscle and nerve functions, along with a regular heartbeat. Aids in Bone growth. Iron- aids in energy use. Helps with red blood cells.