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The TMT Instrumentation Program

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Presentation on theme: "The TMT Instrumentation Program"— Presentation transcript:

1 The TMT Instrumentation Program
Brent Ellerbroek and Luc Simard Pre-SPIE 2010 TMT Instrumentation Workshop San Diego, June 26, 2010 TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

2 Outline TMT Instrumentation Program Early Light Instrument Updates
WFOS IRIS IRMS First Decade Adaptive Optics Motivations for AO improvements First Decade instruments incorporating AO Facility AO upgrades Required technology developments Future Instrumentation Development TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

3 TMT Instrumentation and Performance Handbook 2010
160 pages covering Early-Light and First Decade instrumentation (requirements and designs), instrument synergies, and instrument development Updated information on early-light instruments All instrument feasibility studies were combed systematically to extract all available science simulations, and tables of sensitivities/limiting magnitudes/integration times Available at TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

4 Narrow-Field IR AO System (NFIRAOS): TMT’s Early-Light Facility AO system
Dual conjugate AO system: Order 61x61 DM and TTS at h = 0 km Order 75x75 DM at h = 11.2 km Better Strehl than current AO systems Can feed three instruments Completely integrated system Fast (< 5 min) switch between targets with same instrument > 50% sky coverage at galactic poles (WIRC) NFIRAOS IRMS (NIRES) IRIS TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

5 TMT Science Instrumentation
Early light instruments are expected to be available at the start of TMT science operations. This category includes the following instruments: Wide-Field Optical Spectrometer (WFOS) InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) InfraRed Multi-slit Spectrometer (IRMS) First decade instruments are expected to be commissioned with the first decade of TMT operations. They include: Planet Formation Instrument (PFI) High-Resolution Optical Spectrometer (HROS) Mid-InfraRed Echelle Spectrometer (MIRES) InfraRed Multi-Object Spectrometer (IRMOS) Near-InfraRed Echelle Spectrometer (NIRES) TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

6 Feasibility studies 2005-6 (concepts, requirements, performance,…)

7 People TMT discovery space: main goal is to show that AO is a must to get to the “really good stuff” TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

8 Early Light Instruments

9 InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS)
Also see J. Larkin’s presentation TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

10 IRIS Top-Level Requirements

11 Motivation for IRIS Unprecedented ability to investigate objects on small scales: 5 AU = 36 km (Jovian’s and moons) 5 pc = 0.05 AU (Nearby stars – companions) 100 pc = 1 AU (Nearest star forming regions) 1 kpc = 10 AU (Typical Galactic Objects) 8.5 kpc = 85 AU (Galactic Center or Bulge) 1 Mpc = 0.05 pc (Nearest galaxies) 20 Mpc = 1 pc (Virgo Cluster) z=0.5 = 0.07 kpc (galaxies at solar formation epoch) z=1.0 = 0.09 kpc (disk evolution, drop in SFR) z=2.5 = 0.09 kpc (QSO epoch, Hα in K band) z=5.0 = 0.07 kpc (protogalaxies, QSOs, reionization) Titan with an overlayed 0.05’’ grid (~300 km) (Macintosh et al.) High redshift galaxy. Pixels are 0.04” scale (0.35 kpc). Barczys et al.) Keck AO images M31 Bulge with 0.1” grid (Graham et al.)

12 IRIS Team James Larkin (UCLA), Principal Investigator
Overall IRIS instrument + lenslet-based IFS ADC and optical design: UCSC Anna Moore (Caltech), co-PI Sharing overall instrument responsibilities + slicer-based IFS Ryuji Suzuki, Masahiro Konishi, Tomonori Usuda (NAOJ) Imager design Betsy Barton (UC Irvine), Project Scientist - Science Team: Shri Kulkarni (Caltech), Jonathan Tan (U. Florida), Máté Ádámkovics, Joshua Bloom, James Graham, (UC Berkeley), Pat Côté, Tim Davidge (HIA), Shelley Wright (UC Irvine), Bruce Macintosh (LLNL), Miwa Goto (MPIA), Nobunari Kashikawa(NAOJ), Jessica Lu, Andrea Ghez, David Law, Will Clarkson (UCLA), Hajime Sugai (Kyoto) David Loop, Murray Fletcher, Vlad Reshetov, Jennifer Dunn (HIA) On-instrument wavefront sensors Dae-Sik Moon (U. of Toronto): NFIRAOS Science Calibration Unit TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

13 Overall Field Geometry
Imager Field is on-axis 17” field 0.004” pixels Spectrographs concentric 18” off-axis 2 Coarse Scales (Slicer) 45x90x~2000 elements 2 Fine Scales (Lenslet) 112x128x500 elements Probe Arms 4” Fields 0.004” pixels 18” TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

14 Exploded View of IRIS Assembly

15 On-Instrument Wavefront Sensors
NFIRAOS Interface Probe arm Platform Probe Rotational Stage Camera Dewar Probe arm Mature mechanical design ready for probe arm prototyping IRIS Dewar Attachment Platform Hexapod Support Thermal Jacket TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

16 IRIS Science Dewar Entrance Φ = 2m TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

17 IRIS Imager and Spectrometer
Camera TMA Lenslet 50mas slicer Grating turret 4kx4k spectrograph detector Slicer IFU Slicer collimator Lenslet collimator Schematic view Imager channel Solid Model TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

18 Point Source Sensitivities
Spectroscopy for S/N per spectral channel of 10, between OH lines, assuming an aperture of 2(λ/D) Imager for S/N of 100, assuming an aperture of ~2(λ/D) Filter Scale (mas) Exp. Time (secs) Number of Frames Magnitude (AB) J 4 900 24.1 H 23.7 K 300 12 22.9 S/N ~10 Filter Exp. Time (secs) Number of Frames Magnitude (AB) J 900 4 27.3 H 26.2 K 25.5 CFHT/WIRCAM KAB = 24.5 (S/N=5) t = 30 hours !! S/N ~100 Source: S. Wright & B. Barton, 2009

19 Wide-Field Optical Spectrometer (WFOS)
Also see B. Bigelow’s presentation

20 WFOS Top-Level Requirements

21 WFOS(-MOBIE) Team Rebecca Bernstein (UCSC), Principal Investigator
Bruce Bigelow (UCSC), Project Manager Chuck Steidel (Caltech), Project Scientist Science Team Bob Abraham (U. Toronto), Jarle Brinchmann (Leiden), Judy Cohen (Caltech), Sandy Faber, Raja Guhathakurta, Jason Kalirai, Jason Prochaska, Connie Rockosi (UCSC), Gerry Lupino (UH IfA), Alice Shapley (UCLA) Second feasibility study completed in December 2008 External review with very positive report Reflective collimator selected Conceptual design under way Different WFOS designs were studied during the instrument feasibility study phase. The current design for WFOS is known as the “Multi-Object Broadband Imaging Echellette” (MOBIE) spectrometer.

22 WFOS-MOBIE Echellette Design
Mirror TMT Focal Plane Single field, blue and red arms MOBIE can trade multiplexing for expanded wavelength coverage in its higher dispersion mode Spectral footprint in higher dispersion mode - 3’’ slits spaced 25’’ apart, five orders

23 WFOS-MOBIE Examples of Spectral Resolution Options

24 WFOS-MOBIE Science Field Geometry
Source: 2008 WFOS-MOBIE Feasibility Study Operational Concepts Definition Document Multi-object mask making simulation

25 WFOS-MOBIE Schematic View

26 InfraRed Multi-slit Spectrometer (IRMS)

27 InfraRed Multi-slit Spectrometer (IRMS) (aka Keck/MOSFIRE on TMT)

28 H-band over whole 120” field
IRMS and NFIRAOS IRMOS (deployable MOAO IFUs) deemed too risky and too expensive for first light => IRMS: clone of Keck MOSFIRE; Step 0 towards IRMOS Multi-slit NIR imaging spectro: 46 slits,W:160+ mas, L:2.5” Deployed behind NFIRAOS 2’ field 60mas pixels EE good (80% in K over 30”) Only one OIWFS required Spectral resolution up to 5000 Full Y, J, H, K spectra Imager as well H-band over whole 120” field Slit width TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

29 IRMS Slit Unit & Field CSEM configurable slit unit
Detector area 2’ diameter CSEM configurable slit unit Slits formed by opposing bars Up to 46 slitlets Reconfigurable in ~3 minutes TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

30 “TMT prototype” MOSFIRE integration and test proceeding well
MOSFIRE in Caltech Lab

31 TMT First Decade Adaptive Optics

32 Motivations for AO Improvements
New spectral bands R, I, and Z bands (reduced wavefront error: NFIRAOS+) L, M, and longer bands not transmitted by NFIRAOS (Mid IR AO -- MIRAO) Wider fields of view “Multiplex” observing advantage Wide field enhanced seeing (Ground Layer AO--GLAO), or… Moderate field multi-object AO (Multi-Object AO--MOAO) Higher contrast ratios Detecting and characterizing planets, other companions (“Extreme” AO--ExAO)

33 Possible First Decade Instruments Incorporating AO
IR Multi-Object Spectrograph (IRMOS) MOAO compensation of ~20 integral field units (IFUs) 5 arc min FoV, 50 mas sampling ~8 LGS, one order ~60 MEMS for each IFU 2006 feasibility studies by Caltech and UF/HIA Pathfinder Multi-Object Spectrograph (PMOS) A “mini IRMOS” behind NFIRAOS Perhaps 5 IFUs plus an on-axis imager NFIRAOS reduces MEMS stroke requirements to < 1 mm MEMS could also sharpen tip/tilt stars for improved sky coverage Planet Formation Instrument (PFI) Contrast ratios in range Order ~128 correction; coronagraphy, advanced WFS detectors/concepts 2006 feasibility study by LLNL/JPL TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

34 PFI Block Diagram TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

35 IRMOS Block Diagram (UF Concept)

36 Distance from Center FoV
MOAO Behind NFIRAOS With two DMs, NFIRAOS Strehl and PSF core degrade off-axis at large zenith angles (left) Correction is theoretically much better with MEMS behind NFIRAOS (right) Would benefit both IFUs and natural guide stars Zenith Angle Distance from Center FoV TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

37 Potential Facility AO Upgrades
Mid IR AO facility (MIRAO) nm RMS WFE Facility system for 2-3 mid IR instruments Could be an order 30x30 system with 1 DM, 3 LGS 2006 feasibility study (UH/NOAO) NFIRAOS upgrade (NFIRAOS+) ~120 nm RMS WFE for higher Strehls, shorter wavelengths Could be an order 120x120 upgrade to existing NFIRAOS Improvements to lasers, DMs, WFSs, and RTC Ground layer adaptive optics (GLAO) Enhanced seeing over a wide field of view (e.g., WFOS) Adaptive secondary mirror required TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

38 MIRAO Optical Schematic
Light from TMT Output to Instrument DM LGS WFSs TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

39 AO Component “Desirements”
Higher power lasers Pulsed format to defeat LGS elongation IR detectors Large, high speed, low noise detectors (full frame readout) Piezo DMs Order ~120 with large stroke MEMS DMs Order 64 to 128 with moderate to large stroke Adaptive secondary mirror (AM2) Large, convex, but only ~500 modes of correction required 2006 feasibility study (SAGEM) RTCs Higher throughput and/or more advanced algorithms Advanced WFSs: Pyramid, post coronagraphic calibration,. … TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

40 Required AO Component Advances by Application
System or AO mode Lasers IR det. Piezo DMs MEMs AM2 RTC HW RTC algs. WFS concepts MIRAO Replaces piezo., reduces emission PMOS 642 small stroke Higher order MOAO DM control MOAO (small stroke) IRMOS 642 larger stroke Replaces piezo. MOAO GLAO Required NFIRAOS+ Pulsed 50w? 1202 large stroke Reduces piezo stroke Dynamic refocus PFI Big, fast, quiet 1282 small stroke Replaces piezo TBD (green to yellow) Prediction and calibration Pyramid, post-corona-graphic TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

41 Future Instrumentation Development

42 Defining the TMT Instrumentation Development Program
Observatory Context Requirements and architectures Interfaces (optical, mechanical, power and cooling, data and communications) Common standards and practices Definition of development and delivery phases Planning and Management Practices (costing, schedule, risks, etc.) Development process Procurement Participation (TMT partners, broader community) Support for funding requests Work package agreements Models and phasing scenarios TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

43 Defining the TMT Instrumentation Development Program
Instrumentation Development Office Tasks Personnel Development funding Funding levels Types of source Incentives TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

44 Future Instrumentation Development: Proposed Process
Community explorations (scientific and technical) Consultations (e.g., workshops) Mini-studies SAC prioritization “Cornerstone” of instrumentation development Well-defined metrics for science, technical readiness, schedule and cost Balance between AO systems and science instruments Conceptual Design Studies Establishment of Board guidelines on scope and cost Call for Proposals Study phase (two ~one-year competitive studies for each instrument) External Reviews SAC evaluation and recommendations to the Board TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

45 Future Instrumentation Development: Proposed Process (cont.)
Instrumentation contract awards Observatory (and Board) will negotiate cost and scope of awards considering partnership issues TMT will provide oversight, monitoring and involvement in all instrumentation projects: To ensure compatibility with all other Observatory subsystems To maximize operational efficiency, reliability and minimize cost To encourage common components and strategies To ensure that budget and schedules are respected To manage the development of critical component technologies This will be the responsibility of an Instrumentation Development Office (IDO) within the Observatory TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

46 Instrumentation Development Office
Joint AO and instrumentation engineering team that provides oversight for all instrumentation activities (except routine support) Initially primarily occupied with early-light instruments (WFOS, IRIS, IRMS, NFIRAOS) and associated AO systems with increasing shift of effort towards support for future instruments and AO systems Example: AO group develops AO requirements, leads performance analysis and coordinates/manages all subsystem and component development Will play a central role within a diverse partnership Manages and provides systems engineering support (including commissioning) for AO systems and instruments 4 core FTEs in current operations plan Instrument development budget of ~$10 M / year TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

47 Building Instrumentation Partnerships
Strong interest from all partners in participating in instrumentation projects: Primarily driven by science interests of their respective science communities Large geographical distances and different development models Broad range of facilities and capabilities Significant efforts are already under way to fully realize the exciting potential found within the TMT partnership Goal is to build instrumentation partnerships that make sense scientifically and technically while satisfying partner aspirations TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

48 Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the TMT partner institutions. They are the Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA), the California Institute of Technology and the University of California. This work was supported as well by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation, the National Research Council of Canada, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the British Columbia Knowledge Development Fund, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) and the U.S. National Science Foundation. TMT.IAO.PRE REL01

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