4 Generalized Anxiety Disorder 1.Persistent and uncontrollable tenseness and apprehension. 2.Autonomic arousal. 3.Inability to identify or avoid the cause of certain feelings. Symptoms
5 Panic Disorder Minutes-long episodes of intense dread which may include feelings of terror, chest pains, choking, or other frightening sensations. Anxiety is a component of both disorders. It occurs more in the panic disorder, making people avoid situations that cause it. link Symptoms
6 Phobias Marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that disrupts behavior.
8 Kinds of Phobias Phobia of blood.Hemophobia Phobia of closed spaces Phobia of closed spaces Link. Claustrophobia Phobia of heights link.Acrophobia Phobia of open places.Agoraphobia Arachnophobia at National Geographic Link
9 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Persistence of repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in repetitive behaviors (compulsions) that cause distress. ClipClip
10 A PET scan of the brain of a person with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). High metabolic activity (red) in the frontal lobe areas are involved with directing attention. LinkLink 45:08 Brain Imaging Brain image of an OCD
12 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Four or more weeks of the following symptoms constitute post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): 1.Haunting memories 2.Nightmares 3.Social withdrawal 4.Jumpy anxiety 5.Sleep problems Bettmann/ Corbis
13 Resilience to PTSD Only about 10% of women and 20% of men react to traumatic situations and develop PTSD. Holocaust survivors show remarkable resilience to traumatic situations. All major religions of the world suggest that surviving a trauma leads to the growth of an individual.
14 Explaining Anxiety Disorders Freud suggested that we repress our painful and intolerable ideas, feelings, and thoughts, resulting in anxiety. There are 2 main perspectives, Learning and Biological. LinkLink 58:32
15 The Learning Perspective Learning theorists suggest that fear conditioning leads to anxiety. When anxiety then becomes associated with other objects or events (stimulus generalization) and is reinforced. John Coletti/ Stock, Boston
16 The Learning Perspective Investigators believe that fear responses are initiated through observational learning. Young monkeys develop fear when they watch other monkeys who are afraid of snakes.
17 The Biological Perspective Natural Selection has led our ancestors to learn to fear snakes, spiders, and other animals. Therefore, fear preserves the species. Twin studies suggest that our genes may be partly responsible for developing fears and anxiety. Twins are more likely to share phobias.
18 The Biological Perspective Generalized anxiety, panic attacks, and even OCD are biologically measurable and linked with brain circuits like the anterior cingulate cortex. Anterior Cingulate Cortex of an OCD patient. S. Ursu, V.A. Stenger, M.K. Shear, M.R. Jones, & C.S. Carter (2003). Overactive action monitoring in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychological Science, 14, 347-353.
20 Somatoform Disorders Psychological problems in which there are symptoms of a physical disorder without a physical cause.
21 Conversion Disorder A somatoform disorder in which a person displays blindness, deafness, or other symptoms of sensory or motor failure without a physical cause.
22 Conversion disorders Tend to appear when a person is under severe stress. Often help reduce that stress by allowing the person to avoid unpleasant or threatening situations. The person may show remarkably little concern about what is apparently a rather serious problem. Finally, the symptoms may be neurologically impossible or improbable
23 Hypochondriasis A somatoform disorder involving strong, unjustified fear of having physical illness.
25 Dissociative Disorders Conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings. Symptoms 1.Having a sense of being unreal. 2.Being separated from the body. 3.Watching yourself as if in a movie.
26 Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) A disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities, formerly called multiple personality disorder. LinkLink Chris Sizemore (DID) Lois Bernstein/ Gamma Liason
28 DID Critics Critics argue that the diagnosis of DID increased in the late 20 th century. DID has not been found in other countries. Critics’ Arguments 1.Role-playing by people open to a therapist’s suggestion. 2.Learned response that reinforces reductions in anxiety.
29 Personality Disorders Personality disorders are characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning. Link 58:55 Link
30 Antisocial Personality Disorder A disorder in which the person (usually men) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. LinkLink 6:29 Formerly, this person was called a sociopath or psychopath.
31 "I have no desire whatever to reform myself. My only desire is to reform people who try to reform me, and I believe the only way to reform people is to kill 'em. My motto is: Rob 'em all, rape 'em all, and kill 'em all.“ »Carl Panzram
33 Understanding Antisocial Personality Disorder Like mood disorders and schizophrenia, antisocial personality disorder has biological and psychological reasons. Link Link The brain of a serial killer
34 Understanding Antisocial Personality Disorder PET scans of 41 murderers revealed reduced activity in the frontal lobes. In a follow-up study, violent repeat offenders had 11% less frontal lobe tissue than normal (Raine et al., 1999; 2000). Normal Murderer Courtesy of Adrian Raine, University of Southern California