Presentation on theme: "Argument & Persuasion Think of your favorite commercial. What do you like about it? What makes it your favorite? Does it make you want to buy that product?"— Presentation transcript:
Argument & Persuasion Think of your favorite commercial. What do you like about it? What makes it your favorite? Does it make you want to buy that product?
Rhetoric = The Art of Persuasion The history of rhetoric and the concepts of ethos, pathos, and logos began in Greece.
Aristotle was a famous Greek philosopher. Literally translated from Greek, the word “philosopher” means one who loves wisdom. phil soph er philosopher love wisdom one who philosopher
Who was Aristotle? Aristotle was a famous Greek philosopher who studied the art of persuasion. Aristotle taught Alexander the Great how to properly argue and perform a public speech. Plato, another famous Greek philosopher, was his teacher.
Ethos, Pathos, and Logos Aristotle Plato In approximately 300 B.C.E. Aristotle, who was a famous Greek philosopher, wrote a book entitled, “The Art of Rhetoric.” In his book, Aristotle identified the three methods of persuasion. He called them ethos, pathos, and logos. The Book
Ethos, Pathos, & Logos There are several ways to appeal to an audience. Among them are appealing to ethos, pathos, and logos. These appeals are prevalent in almost all arguments. 1.Ethos = an ethical or moral argument 2.Pathos = an emotional argument 3. Logos = a logical argument
Ethos Greek word ETHIKOS meaning moral or showing moral character Speaker must establish moral credibility in the minds of audience, must show he/she has expertise in the subject matter For example, when a trusted doctor gives you advice, you may not understand all of the medical reasoning behind the advice, but you nonetheless follow the directions because you believe that the doctor knows what he/she is talking about.
Ethos = Ethics: refers to the trustworthiness of the speaker/writer. Ethos is an effective persuasive strategy because when we believe that the speaker does not intend to do us harm, we are more willing to listen to what s/he has to say. When a judge comments on legal precedent audiences tend to listen because it is the job of a judge to know the nature of past legal cases. Ethos - cont’d
Pathos Pathos: related to the words pathetic, sympathy, and empathy. Accept a claim based on how it makes you feel without fully analyzing the rationale behind the claim May persuade you with fear, love, patriotism, guilt, hate or joy. Society should not react to emotional arguments without fully considering all of the facts. The use of pathos can be manipulative It is the cornerstone of moving people to action and it will continue to be used again and again. Appeals to pathos touch a nerve and compel people to not only listen, but to also take the next step and act in the world.
Pathos – cont’d Pathos is the use of emotional appeal. Both words and pictures can achieve this appeal. These print advertisements are meant to appeal to your emotions. Who can say no to these faces?
Logos Logos = logical appeal Logos refers to any attempt to appeal to the intellect. Logos appeals to the left side of the audience's brain. The audience finds certain patterns, conventions and modes of reasoning to be convincing and persuasive. The audience relies on reasoning and facts to make its decision. Numbers, polls and statistics are also examples of the persuasive use of logic.
Logos The Mac vs. PC ads use logos because they give specific reasons that people should own a Mac instead of a PC. The type of logos that these ads use is deductive reasoning. The deductive reasoning use is: I am familiar with and like using a PC. A Mac can operate the same programs as a PC. I am familiar with and like using a Mac. Some added bonuses are the fact that a Mac is more resistant to viruses and it has more program capabilities (such as graphics programs) than a PC. These ads are very logical in the way they approach their explanations of why a Mac is better than a PC.
REVIEW Ethos, Pathos, & Logos 1.Ethos = an ethical or moral argument 2.Pathos = an emotional argument 3. Logos = a logical argument